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Referencing

MMU Harvard

Manchester Metropolitan University has a standard version of the Harvard referencing style called MMU Harvard.

The MMU Harvard style requires you to reference each type of information source (e.g. book, article, webpage etc.) in a standard way.

The MMU Harvard reference types A-Z section below provides examples of how to cite and reference a wide range of information source types.

Please also consult the Citations and Direct quotes sections for instruction on how to present citations.

Our MMU Harvard FAQs provide further instruction on referencing and how to identify sources.

You can also download the full MMU Harvard Referencing Guide as a PDF, and an MMU Harvard referencing PDF quick guide, from the bottom of this page.

MMU Harvard reference types A-Z

If you do not find the answer you need in the sections below or require help with identifying the source to reference, our MMU Harvard FAQs may provide some guidance.

Select a heading below:

Acts of parliament

Annual reports

App content

Apps

Archive material

Bills

Books/eBooks

Briefing papers

Business cases

Case Law

Chapter in an edited book

Company data/reports from company financial databases

Company reports

Computer/video games

Conference papers (published and unpublished) and conference proceedings

Dictionary definition

Discussion papers

Dissertations/theses

eBook readers

EU documents/legislation

Excel file

Exhibition catalogues

Films/DVDs/Videos

Foreign language sources

General reports

Government command papers

Guest presentation

Illustrations: e.g. images, pictures, diagrams, graphs, charts or tables

Journal articles

Journals: special issue

Leaflets/Posters

Lecture notes

Magazine articles

Market reports/Company and Industry profiles/Country reports

Newspaper articles

Online audio

Online images

Online PDF documents

Online videos

Parliamentary debates (Hansard)

Parliamentary Papers - online

Patents

Plays

Podcasts

Poems

Preprint articles

Press release

Religious texts

Secondary sources

Software

Songs

Sources with no author

Speech

Standards

Statutory Instruments

Systematic review - Cochrane

Translated source

TV and radio broadcasts

UN documents

Webpage (including blogs and social media sites)

Working papers

Works of art

MMU Harvard referencing 8th edition PDF

MMU Harvard Referencing
8th edition


Hetal Patel, Lecturer
in conjunction with
The MMU Harvard referencing team
September 2020
 


Acknowledgements


In constructing this guide, a number of handbooks from various institutions were consulted.
Permission to use information from these institutions has been granted. The authors would like to
thank and acknowledge the following people or departments:
David Rudd – University of Bolton
Geoffrey Ward – University of Essex
Information Literacy Team – University of Leeds
Learning and Information Services (LIS) – University of Wolverhampton
Skills for Learning – Leeds Metropolitan University
Sue Taylor – University of Gloucestershire
Virginia Bell – Queen Margaret University
Academic Services – Bournemouth University
The authors would also like to thank members of staff from the Faculties of Education and Health,
Psychology and Social Care for their advice and recommendations.
Special thanks to Janet Rooney for the design of this handbook.


Disclaimer


This Harvard referencing handbook is designed to be used specifically by undergraduate students
studying at Manchester Metropolitan University. However, all students are advised to check with
their programme team as to which style of referencing is required as a few departments do not use
the Harvard system.
Postgraduate students and those who are submitting material for publication should adhere strictly
to guidelines or specifications provided by their supervisor or publishers of the relevant journal.


Contents

Table of contents
Contents
Acknowledgements
Disclaimer
Why should I reference? Plagiarism
What are citations, references and a bibliography?
Citations
References
Bibliography
Citations
Direct quotes Direct quotes: general rules
Length of quotes
Referencing list format
Citing and referencing specific sources: A-Z of reference types
Acts of Parliament Citing Acts of Parliament
Referencing Acts of Parliament
Acts introduced prior to 1963
Annual Reports Citing annual reports
Referencing print copy annual reports
Referencing online annual reports
App content Citing app content
Referencing app content
Apps Citing apps
Referencing apps
Archive material Citing archive material
Referencing archive material accessed online
Referencing archive material viewed physically
Bills Citing Bills
Referencing Bills
Books General rules
Citing books
Referencing books
Briefing papers Citing briefing papers
Referencing briefing papers
Business cases Citing business cases
Referencing business cases - online copy
Referencing business print - online copy
Case law Citing case law
Referencing case law
Chapter in an edited book Citing a chapter from an edited book
Referencing a chapter from an edited book
Company data/reports from company financial databases Citing data/reports from company financial databases
Referencing data/reports from company financial databases
Company reports
Computer / video games Citing computer / video games
Referencing a computer / video game
Referencing an online/downloaded computer game
Conference papers and conference proceedings (published and unpublished) Citing conference papers (published or unpublished)
Referencing conference proceedings
Referencing published conference papers – print copy
Referencing published conference papers – online copy
Referencing unpublished conference papers (paper presented at a conference)
Referencing a conference presentation document
Discussion papers Citing discussion papers
Referencing print discussion papers
Referencing online discussion papers
Dissertations/theses Citing dissertations/theses
Referencing dissertations/theses – print copy
Referencing dissertations/theses – online copy
Ebook readers Citing ebook readers
Referencing ebook readers
EU documents/legislation Citing EU documents/legislation
Referencing EU documents/legislation
Excel file Citing an Excel file
Referencing an Excel file
Exhibition catalogues  Citing exhibition catalogues
Referencing exhibition catalogues
Referencing a work of art in an exhibition catalogue
Films/DVDs/videos Citing films/DVDs/videos
Referencing films
Referencing DVDs/videos
Citing extra features on DVDs/videos: film commentaries
Referencing extra features on DVDs/videos: film commentaries
Citing extra features on DVDs/videos: interviews with film director/s
Referencing extra features on DVDs/videos: interviews with film director/s
Citing extra features on DVDs/videos: documentary
Referencing extra features on DVDs/videos: documentary
Citing films accessed online
Referencing films accessed online
Foreign language sources Citing foreign language sources
Referencing foreign language sources
Referencing foreign language newspaper articles – online editions
General Reports Citing general reports
Referencing print copy general reports
Referencing online general reports
Government Command papers Citing Command papers
Referencing Command papers
Guest presentations Citing guest presentations
Referencing guest presentations
Illustrations: e.g. images, pictures, diagrams, tables Caption elements for illustrations
Citing illustrations
Referencing illustrations
Journal articles Citing journal articles
Referencing journal articles
Online journal articles
Journals: special issue Citing journals: special issue
Referencing journals: special issue
Leaflets/posters Citing leaflets/posters
Referencing leaflets/posters
Lecture notes Citing lecture notes
Referencing lecture notes
Magazine articles Citing magazine articles
Referencing magazine articles
Referencing online magazine articles
Market reports/company and industry profiles/country reports Citing market reports
Referencing market reports/company and industry profiles/country reports - print copy
Referencing market reports/company and industry profiles/country reports – online copy
Newspaper articles Citing newspaper articles
Referencing print copies of newspaper articles
Referencing online newspaper articles
Online audio Citing online audio
Referencing an online audio
Online images or photos Citing online images or photos
Referencing online images or photos
Online PDF documents Citing online PDF documents
Referencing online PDF documents
Citing a chapter in an Online PDF document 
Referencing a chapter in an Online PDF document
Online videos Citing online videos
Referencing online videos
Parliamentary debates (Hansard) Citing parliamentary debates (Hansard)
Referencing a parliamentary debate (print copy)
Referencing a parliamentary debate (online version)
Parliamentary papers - online Citing parliamentary papers – online
Referencing parliamentary papers – online
Patents Citing a Patent
Referencing a Patent
Plays Citing a play
Referencing a play
Preprint articles Citing preprint articles
Referencing preprint articles
Press release Citing a press release
Referencing a press release
Religious texts Citing religious texts
Referencing religious texts
Secondary sources Citing secondary sources
Referencing secondary sources
Software Citing software
Referencing software
Songs Citing songs
Referencing songs from a single (a or b sides)
Referencing songs from an album
Referencing an album
Referencing songs accessed online
Sources with no author  
Speech Citing a speech
Referencing a speech
Standards Citing Standards
Referencing print Standards
Referencing online Standards
Statutory Instruments Citing Statutory Instruments
Referencing Statutory Instruments
Systematic reviews – Cochrane  Citing systematic reviews
Referencing systematic reviews
Television and Radio broadcasts Citing television and radio broadcasts
Referencing television and radio broadcasts
Referencing television and radio broadcasts accessed online
Translated source Citing a translated source
Referencing a translated book
Referencing a translated book with an editor
Referencing a translated book with introduction/section written by another author
Referencing translated journal articles
UN documents Citing UN documents
Referencing print UN documents
Referencing online UN documents
Webpages (including blogs and social media sites) Citing webpages (including blogs and social media sites)
Referencing webpages (including blogs and social media sites)
Working papers  Citing working papers 
Referencing print working papers
Referencing online working papers
Works of art Citing works of art
Referencing works of art
Original work of art showing in a temporary exhibition
Citing a work of art showing in a temporary exhibition
Referencing a work of art showing in a temporary exhibition
Art exhibition
Citing an art exhibition
Referencing an art exhibition
Work of art reproduced in another source
Citing a work of art reproduced in another source
Referencing a work of art reproduced in a book
Referencing a work of art reproduced on a webpage



Why should I reference?


One of the purpose of referencing is to enable others to find the information that you have used in
your assignment.
You MUST cite and reference all the sources of information that you have used in the main text of
your assignment. It is important to acknowledge the work of others if you have referred to it in your
assignments; if you do not, you will be accused of PLAGIARISM.


Plagiarism


Plagiarism is a failure to acknowledge another person’s work or idea and claiming this idea as your
own. This is deemed as cheating/academic misconduct and is treated as a SERIOUS OFFENCE. See
the ‘Assessment Regulations for Taught Programmes’ in the programme regulations section of your
student handbook.
You can find more information on avoiding plagiarism in the Skills Online module in your Moodle
Student Support Area.


What are citations, references and a bibliography?


Citations


Acknowledging other people’s work/ideas within your assignment or in the main body of your text is
called ‘citing’. You will often come across citations when you are reading books or journals.


References


This is a list of sources that you have cited in the main text of your assignment. You must include
this list at the end of your assignment.


Bibliography


This is a list of sources that you have cited in your work (i.e. your reference list) and also the sources
that you have read but have not cited in the main text of your assignment. This list should also be
placed at the end of your assignment, after the reference section; however, you only need to
produce a bibliography alongside a reference list if you have been asked to do so.


Citations


For most sources, the only information you need when citing within the text of your work is the
author’s surname and the year of publication. However, please also bear in mind:

  • If there is no author but there is an organisation’s name you use this instead. 
  • If there is no date state these words instead of the year e.g. (no date).
  • If you are citing a number of sources that support your argument you would cite these in chronological order, separated by a semi-colon. For example: (Beck, 2012; Shields, 2013; Inala, 2014)

For more complex citations, examples are provided with each specific source throughout the guide.


Presenting citations


If you do not use the author’s name in your writing, the author and year are placed in brackets at
the end of the statement as follows.


Example


Recording personal achievements can be used as a reflective tool and can help an individual
identify their own skills and expertise (Cottrell, 2015).
If you are using the author’s name in your writing, you would add the year in brackets following the
author’s surname, as follows.


Example


Cottrell (2015) suggests that recording personal achievements can be used as a reflective tool and
can help an individual identify their own skills and expertise.


Using page numbers


It is essential to provide the page number(s) for direct quotes. It can also be helpful to provide the
page number(s) when you have paraphrased the text, as this can help the reader easily find the
part of the source that you are referring to.


Sources with one author:


Author’s surname or organisation’s name and the year of publication.


Examples


… (Cottrell, 2015)
… (Association of Illustrators, 2011)
… (Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform, no date)


Sources with two authors:


Both authors’ surnames or two organisations’ names and the year of publication.


Example


… (Lightbown and Spada, 1993)


Sources with three or more authors:


Surname of the first author only followed by et al. and the year of publication.


Example


… (Burrows et al., 2009)


An author who has published more than one piece of work in the same year:


To distinguish between different sources by the same author published in the same year, use a, b, c etc. after the year in both the citation and the reference. The letter you assign to the publication should be in order of its appearance in the main text of your work. Therefore, the first publication
you cite should be assigned the letter ‘a’, the next citation will be ‘b’ etc., regardless of the month in which it was published.


Example


(Cottrell, 2012a) {i.e. for the first instance of a citation by Cottrell published in 2012}
(Cottrell, 2012b) {i.e. for the second instance of a citation by Cottrell published in 2012}


Authors with the same surname


When citing different sources by authors with the same surname, include the initial/s of the
authors to distinguish between them.


Examples


… (M. Mullins, 2016)
… (L. J. Mullins, 2011)


Using page numbers


It can also be helpful to provide the page number(s) when you have paraphrased the text, as this
can help the reader easily find the section of the source from which you are citing.
Most disciplines at Manchester Met however, do not require you to use page numbers when
paraphrasing from a source. If you are unsure, please check with your tutor or department.


Direct quotes


When citing a direct quote you need to include the page number or the word ‘online’, if you have
used an online source, in the citation.
For more complex quotes, examples are provided for each specific source throughout the guide:


Direct quotes with page numbers


When citing a direct quote from a source you need to use the surname/s of the author/s and the
year followed by the page number, in the following format:


Example


When critically evaluating others’ work, it’s important to use ‘tact and a constructive approach…’
(Cottrell, 2005:97).


Direct quotes from online sources


As many online sources have no page number, when quoting directly you need to state that the
information has been found online in the following way:


Example


According to the Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (no date:online) pay-as-you go
ensured that ‘…mobile phones are one of the most inclusive technologies’.

Direct quotes: general rules

 

  • When using quotes the wording that you have used in your assignment needs to be EXACTLY the same as the text from the source.
  • Single quotation marks must be used at the beginning and end of the quote so the reader knows where the quote begins and ends.
  • Quotes should not be altered into italics, underlined or emboldened unless you want to highlight/emphasise a specific word in the quote. If you do this cite the quote as: (Egan, 2002:186 emphasis added) to show you have altered it.
  • If the information from a source you are using as a direct quote runs over two pages, use both page numbers, for example: (2016:1-2).
  • If you do not use the whole sentence, make sure you use ellipses (…) to indicate which part of the sentence is missing; these may be at the start of the quote, the end of the quote, or in the middle if you have shortened the wording.
  • If you come across a mistake in a quote and do not want this mistake to be attributed to you, you can add the term [sic] next to the error. This can also apply to different spellings of words e.g. color and colour.
  • If you want to insert words into a quote you can add square brackets [ ] around the additional text but remember the sentence must make grammatical sense. It is important to use square brackets and not round brackets around the extra text because this indicates that this is your addition and not the author’s.

 

Length of quotes

Short quotes


Quotes of up to and including 20 words, or up to two sentences (whichever is the greater) can be
embedded into the text. You MUST put single quotation marks around the text that you are inserting
into your assignment, as shown below. Remember, the sentence needs to make grammatical sense.


Example


For an individual to manage their workload effectively, a plan can be devised to tackle daily, weekly
and monthly commitments. Within this framework, individuals can identify issues that ‘…arise in
the course of your study and prioritise them with the most serious on top’ (Whitehead and Mason,
2003:27). By setting time aside and identifying possible events that may occur…
The quote used in the above example does not start at the beginning of the original sentence.
Thus, the ellipses ‘…’ have been used to illustrate that the quote is only part of the original
sentence.


Long Quotes


Longer quotes should be indented and placed in a separate paragraph, as shown below.
You DO NOT need to place quotation marks around the quote if it is classified as a long quote.


Example


Moyser (2006:85) defines Elite interviewing as:


The use of interviews to study those at the ‘top’ of any stratification system, be it in sport,
academia, social status, religion, beauty or whatever. In practice, however, elite research
focuses mainly on political and economic notables. The study of elites touches on some of
the major and perennial issues of social analysis. The views and activities of generals,
businessmen, politicians and church leaders have been of concern to social thinkers since
the earliest days of Western thought.


As this definition points out…


Short Quotes


Quotes 20 words in length or shorter can be embedded into the text. You MUST put single
quotation marks around the text that you are inserting into your assignment, as shown below.
Remember, the sentence needs to make grammatical sense.


Example


For an individual to manage their workload effectively, a plan can be devised to tackle daily, weekly
and monthly commitments. Within this framework, individuals can identify issues that ‘…arise in
the course of your study and prioritise them with the most serious on top’ (Whitehead and Mason,
2003:27). By setting time aside and identifying possible events that may occur…
The quote used in the above example does not start at the beginning of the original sentence.
Thus, the ellipses ‘…’ have been used to illustrate that the quote is only part of the original
sentence.


Referencing list format


ALL sources that have been mentioned in the main text need to be listed, alphabetically, in the
referencing section using the correct format as detailed in this guide.
If you have used et al. in your citation you need to list all authors in your reference list.
If you have two or more authors with the same surname you must list them in alphabetical order
according to the author’s initial/s:


Examples


Mullins, L. J. (2007) Management and organisational behaviour. 8th ed., Harlow: Financial Times
Prentice Hall.
Mullins, R. (2007) ‘iPhone: why one little gadget matters so much.’ Network World, 24(50) p. 33.
If you have a single author, where the surname is the same but the publication year is different the
sources should be listed in chronological order with the earliest publication first:


Examples


Cottrell, S. (2005) Critical thinking skills: developing effective analysis and argument. Basingstoke:
Palgrave Macmillan.
Cottrell, S. (2008) The study skills handbook. 3rd ed., Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
If you have two or more sources where the author’s surname is the same, but one publication is
written by a single author and the other is written by more than one author, the single authored
publication will be listed first. This will be the case regardless of the author’s first name:


Examples


Jameson, R. (1994) ‘Making the connection.’ Housing, 30(1) pp. 45-46.
Jameson, K. and Kidd, P. (1974) Pre-school play. London: Studio Vista.
In the above example Jameson, R. comes before Jameson, K. This is because a joint publication is
always placed after the single author of the same name.


Citing and referencing specific sources: A-Z of reference types


Acts of Parliament


Citing Acts of Parliament


When citing Acts of Parliament in the main text of an assignment you must write in full, the short
title of the Act and the year.
PLEASE NOTE: Unlike the other citation formats the year of publication does not need to be placed
in brackets as this forms part of the title of the Act (with exception of direct quotes, see below).


Examples


According to the 1996 Housing Act, there are….
The 1960 Charities Act clearly stated that….


Direct quotes


When citing a direct quote from an Act of Parliament, write the full short title of the Act and the
year, followed by the page number written in brackets.


Example


The 1996 Housing Act (1996:13) states that tenants have the right to purchase their property as
long as ‘the dwelling was provided with public money and has remained in the social rented
sector’.
NB Please note that when quoting directly you need to add the year a second time.


Referencing Acts of Parliament


When referencing an Act of Parliament, you should provide the following information in the format
displayed below:
PLEASE NOTE: Unlike for other reference types the year of publication does not need to be placed
in brackets as this forms part of the title of the Act (with exception of direct quotes, see below).
Short title of the Act and Year. (chapter number of the Act, abbreviated to ‘c.’) Place of publication:
Publisher.


Example


Housing Act 1996. (c.52) London: HMSO.


Acts introduced prior to 1963


If you are using an Act that was introduced prior to 1963, you will need to include some additional
information alongside the chapter number.
Short title of the Act and Year. (Year of reign of the monarch at the time the Act was introduced the
monarch’s name which can be abbreviated, chapter number of the Act) Place of publication:
Publisher.


Examples


Statistics of Trade Act 1947. (10&11 Geo. 6, c.39) London: HMSO.
Charities Act 1960. (8&9 Eliz. 2, c.58) London: HMSO.


Annual Reports


Citing annual reports


When citing annual reports by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown previously.
Please note that to cite an annual report you will generally have to use the organisation’s name as an author name is usually not present.


Referencing print copy annual reports


When referencing annual reports, you should provide the following information in the format
displayed below:
Name of company. (Year of publication) Title of annual report. Place of publication: Publisher.


Example


eBay. (2011) Annual Report 2011. San Jose: eBay Inc.
 

Referencing online annual reports


When referencing an online annual report, you should provide the following information in the
format displayed below:
Name of company. (Year of publication) Title of annual report (in italics). [Online] [Date accessed]
URL


Examples


British Geological Survey. (2010) Annual report 2010-2011. [Online] [Accessed on 24th April 2012]
http://www.bgs.ac.uk/downloads/

John Lewis Partnership PLC. (2020) Annual report and accounts 2020. [Online] [Accessed on 18th June 
2020] https://www.johnlewispartnership.co.uk/content/dam/cws/pdfs/Juniper/ARA2020/JLP-2020-Annual-Report-and-Accounts.pdf
 


App content


Citing app content


When citing information from app content by paraphrasing, the information will be presented as
shown on previously.
When citing a direct quote from an app, you should use the following format:


Direct quotes


The originator of the app, the year the app was released and the word app.


Example


‘… product, price, promotion…’ (Morgan, 2012:app)


Referencing app content


When referencing content from an app, you should provide the following information in the format
displayed below:
Owner/creator. (Year) (Use year accessed if release date is not available). ‘Title of app content.’
Publisher or Producer (if ascertainable). Title of app. Version number. [App] [Date accessed]


Example


Morgan, J. (2012) ‘Business marketing lecture.’ Duke University. iTunes-U. Version 1.9.11. [App]
[Accessed on 25th January 2012]


Apps


An app refers to an application that is accessed on a mobile device, such as a tablet or smart phone.
There are academic sources produced as apps so you may need to cite and reference one in your
academic work.


Citing apps


When citing information from apps by paraphrasing, the information will be presented as shown previously.
When using a direct quote from an app, you should use the following format:


Direct quotes


The originator of the app, the year the app was released and the word app.


Example


‘healthcare in England…’ (Skyscape, 2010:app)


Referencing apps


When referencing an app, you should provide the following information in the format displayed
below:
Originator/s. (Year) (Use year accessed if release date is not available). Title of app. Version number
(if known). [App] [Date accessed]


Example


Skyscape. (2010) Skyscape medical resources. Version 1.9.11. [App] [Accessed on 18th January
2011]


Archive material


Citing archive material


When citing archive material by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be
presented as shown previously.
Archive material can be various types of source material and as such, the format may differ
depending on the type of material.
When referencing archive material, the archive collection details are just as important as the details
of the material itself.
General rules:

  •  Follow the usual format specific to the source (see first example below for a journal article located in an online archive collection), followed by the archive collection details and archive location (physical or online).
  • Add the [Medium] in square brackets, if the type of medium is not identifiable by the title or by the elements specific to the source, as shown in the third example below.
  • Include any reference numbers if provided on the source, as shown in the third example below.
Referencing archive material accessed online

 

When referencing archive material accessed online, you should provide the following information in
the format displayed below:
Author surname, Initial/s. (year of publication/creation) Title of material (in italics) {and/or any
other elements specific to the source} (source reference number in brackets). [Medium (if
required)] Archive collection title. [Online] [Access date] URL


Examples


Davis, D. (1992) ‘This wonderful life.’ Broadsheet, 9(3) pp. 29-34. National Association for the
Teaching of Drama Archive. [Online] [Accessed on 21st April 2017]
http://www.mantleoftheexpert.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/NATD.v.9.3-1993.pdf
Freud, S. (1934) Postcard to Saul Rosenzweig. Sigmund Freud papers: general correspondence,
1871-1996. Library of Congress Digital Collections. [Online] [Accessed on 20th April 2017]
https://www.loc.gov/resource/mss39990.04022/?sp=2
Heathcote, D. (no date) Some very early notes on Mantle of the Expert (AC115-DH). [Annotated
typescript] Dorothy Heathcote Archive. [Online] [Accessed on 24th April 2017]
http://www.mantleoftheexpert.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/AC115-DH-Some-very-early-notes-onmoe.pdf


Referencing archive material viewed physically


When referencing archive material viewed physically, you should provide the following information
in the format displayed below:
Author surname, Initial/s. (year of publication/creation) Title of material (in italics) {and/or any
other elements specific to the source} (source reference number in brackets). [Medium (if
required)] Archive collection title. Location of archive/collection.


Example


Legh, P. (1729) Letter to Francis Leicester July 24th (DLT C35/74). Leicester-Warren Family of Tabley
Records. Cheshire Archives and Local Studies, Chester.


Bills


Citing Bills


When citing a Bill, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Title of the Bill (Year)


Example


Homelessness Reduction Bill (2016)


Referencing Bills


When referencing a Bill, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Key point:

  • Use the House in which the Bill originated i.e. House of Commons or House of Lords.

Title of Bill (Year) The House in which the Bill originated. (Bill no. and parliamentary session/year)
Place of publication: Publisher.


Example


Homelessness Reduction Bill. (2016) House of Commons. (Bill 7 2016-2017) London: TSO.
Children and Social Work Bill. (2017) House of Lords. (Bill 121 2016-2017) London: TSO.


Books


PLEASE NOTE: Electronic books found online (not via ebook readers) will be referenced in the same
manner as a print copy of a book. This is because an electronic book is just a scanned copy of the
original print book. This means the information in both versions of the book is exactly the same.


General rules

Year of Publication and reprints


The year of publication, for a book, refers to the year the book was first published and not the reprint date. If you are presented with a list of years, you need to select the year the book was first published.


Example


If presented with the following information: First published 1992, reprinted 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998 (twice), 1999, 2000, 2002
You would choose 1992 as the year of publication. The reason why you would not choose any of the other years, such as 2002, is because the information in the books that have been reprinted is the same as the information found in the book when it was first published.


Reprints of old text with new publishers


If a book has been reprinted by a new publisher (and not the original publisher) then the date when
it was reprinted with the new publisher needs to be recorded along with the original publication
date. This is so that someone searching for the edition you have used can find it, but you are also
being clear about the original date of the information.


Example


Rogers, C. R. (1961, reprinted 2004) On becoming a person: a therapist's view of psychotherapy.
London: Constable.


Citing books


When citing books by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as
shown previously.

Referencing books


Key Points:
You may find that the place of publication lists a number of locations, in which case you need to
select the first location because this would be the place the book was published.

  • If there is no edition listed leave this out. If the book is listed as 1st edition also leave this out.
  • When referencing an edited book, you should put the editor’s surname/s instead of the author’s. You indicate this by using (ed.) or (eds.) immediately after the surname/s and initial/s, as shown in the Hargie example below.

Taking the above into account, when referencing a published book, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s or editor’s surname/s, Initial/s. (ed/s.) (Year of publication) Title of book (in italics). Edition if applicable., Place of publication: Publisher.


Examples


Association of Illustrators. (2011) Images 35: best of British illustration 2011. London: Association of Illustrators.
Burrows, A., Parsons, A., Price, G. and Pilling G. (2009) Chemistry³: introducing inorganic, organic and physical chemistry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lightbown, P. and Spada, N. (1993) How languages are learned. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cottrell, S. (2011) Critical thinking skills: developing effective analysis and argument. 2nd ed., Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillian.
Hargie, O. (ed.) (2006) The handbook of communication skills. 3rd ed., London: Routledge. 

Thompson, N. (2018) Promoting equality: working with diversity and difference. 4th ed., London: Palgrave. 

 


Briefing papers


Citing briefing papers


When citing briefing papers, by paraphrasing or by using direct quotes, the information will be presented as shown previously.


Referencing briefing papers


Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year) Title of paper (in italics). Organisation/department name briefing paper number. Place of publication: Publisher. [Online] [Access date] URL


Example


Baker, C. (2017) Accident and Emergency statistics: demand, performance and pressure. House of Commons Library Briefing Paper no. 6964. London: House of Commons Library. [Online] [Accessed on 3rd April 2017] http://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/SN06964/SN06964.pdf

 

Business cases


Citing business cases


When citing a business case, by paraphrasing or by using direct quotes, the information will be presented as shown previously.


Referencing business cases – online copy


Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year) Title of case (in italics). Case collection and/or number (if applicable). Place of publication: Publisher. [Online] [Access date] URL


Example


Lawrence, K. (2020) Was McDonald’s right to fire Its CEO? London: SAGE Business Cases Originals.
[Online] [Accessed on 20th July 2020] https://sk-sagepub-com.mmu.idm.oclc.org/cases/wasmcdonalds-right-to-fire-its-ceo
Orradottir, B., Barrio, I. C. and Boyaninska, D. (2019) From bare to birch: large-scale ecosystem restoration in Iceland. Case no. 719-0053-1. Rotterdam: RSM Case Development Centre. [Online] [Accessed on 20th July 2020] https://www.thecasecentre.org/educators/products/view?id=165870


Referencing business cases – print copy


Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year) Title of case (in italics). Case collection and/or number (if
applicable). Place of publication: Publisher.


Example


Steenburgh, T. J. and Avery, J. (2010) Marketing analysis toolkit: situation analysis. Harvard Business School Case No. 510-079. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing.


Case law


Law students should follow the OSCOLA style of referencing. Instruction and examples below are for non-law students only. If you are studying law as part of another programme (e.g. Combined Honours) check with your tutor which referencing style you should use.


Citing case law


When citing case law, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Party Names (separated by a ‘v’ and in italics), Year of the case was heard


Example


(Alternative Power Solution Ltd v Central Electricity Board, 2014)


Referencing case law


When referencing case law, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Key points:

The use of round and square brackets:

  • Square brackets are used when the date is essential to locate the case, because there multiple volumes each year.
  • If the date is not essential to locate the case, because there is only one volume per year, the year should be entered in round brackets, as shown in the second example below:


Party Names (separated by a ‘v’ and in italics) [Year the case was heard] Volume number (if available) Law Report abbreviation Start page.


Examples


Alternative Power Solution Ltd v Central Electricity Board. [2014] 4 All ER 882.
Mountgarrett (Rt Hon Viscount) v Claro Water Board. (1963) 15 P & CR 53.


Chapter in an edited book


PLEASE NOTE: The following rules DO NOT apply if you are referencing information in a chapter from a book entirely written by the same author/s. These rules only apply when the book is edited and the chapters are written by different authors.


Citing a chapter from an edited book


When citing chapters from an edited book by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown previously.

NB: please see below for information on which author to cite.


Please bear in mind that you only need to cite the author of the chapter whose idea you have used within your assignment. For instance, if you have read a chapter by David Dickson in a book edited by Owen Hargie you use Dickson’s name in the citation. When you are using different chapters within the edited book, each chapter you cite will have a separate entry in your reference list. The book entitled ‘The handbook of communication skills’ is edited by Owen Hargie. The book was published in 2006 and there are a number of different chapters that are authored by other people. You do not need to mention, in the main body of your assignment, that the chapter was found in Hargie’s book because this is not relevant for the citation. However, this information will be provided in the reference list so that anyone can locate the correct source.


One or two authors


Surname/s of chapter author and year of publication


Example


Dickson (2006) asserts that to try to define or conceptualise ‘reflecting’ as an interactive skill is very
complex. 


Three or more authors:


Surname of the first author only followed by et al. and the year of publication.


Example


Randall et al. (2006) state that non-verbal behaviour causes people to…


Direct quotes


When citing a direct quote from a book chapter you also need the page number which is written after the year in the following format:


Example


Dickson (2006:167) believes reflection can be beset by problems such as ‘… conceptual confusion,
terminological inconsistency, and definitional imprecision…’

 

Referencing a chapter from an edited book


When referencing the work of an author who has written a chapter in an edited book, you should
provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Surname of the author/s who wrote the chapter, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of the chapter.’ In (in italics) Surname of the editor/s, Initial/s. (ed/s.) Title of book (in italics). Edition if applicable., Place of publication: Publisher, first and last page numbers of the chapter.


Examples


Dickson, D. (2006) ‘Reflecting.’ In Hargie, O. (ed.) The handbook of communication skills. 3rd ed., London: Routledge, pp. 165-194.
Randall, A. G., Druckman, D., Rozelle, R. M. and Baxter, J. C. (2006) ‘Non-verbal behaviour as communication: approaches, issues and research.’ In Hargie, O. (ed.) The handbook of communication skills. 3rd ed., London: Routledge, pp. 73-120.


Company data/reports from company financial databases


Citing data/reports from company financial databases


When citing data or information from a company report found on a company financial database, the information will be presented as shown previously.

Please note that to cite data/reports located on company and financial databases, you will have to use the organisation’s name as an author name is not present.


Referencing data/reports from company financial databases


When referencing data/reports located on company and financial databases, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Name of organisation (owner of database). (Year of report) Title of company report. Title of databases (in italics). [Online] [Date accessed] URL


Example


Bureau van Dijk. (2015) Arcadia Group Limited company report. FAME. [Online] [Accessed on 15th
July 2015] https://fame-bvdinfo-com.ezproxy.mmu.ac.uk/version201572/Search.QuickSearch.serv?_CID=1&context=1NQ68UOWXT7ZWPY


Company reports


Follow the format for an Annual Report when using information from a company report which has been produced and published by the company itself.


Computer / video games


Citing computer / video games


When citing computer games, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
(Creator/developer, Year of release)


Example


(Ubisoft, 2011)

Referencing a computer / video game


When referencing a computer game you should provide the following information in the format
displayed below:
Creator/Developer. (Year of release) Title (in italics). Edition or Version (if applicable). Platform.[Game] Place of publication/distribution: Publisher/Distribution company.


Example


Ubisoft. (2010) Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood. Standard edition. Xbox. [Game] Montreal: Ubisoft.


Referencing an online/downloaded computer game


When referencing an online computer game, or one that you have downloaded, you should provide
the following information in the format displayed below:
Creator/Developer. (Year of release) Title (in italics). Edition or Version (if applicable). Platform. [Game] [Access date] URL


Example


Blue Byte Mainz. (2015) Anno 2205. Standard edition. PC. [Game] [Accessed on 1st August 2016]
http://store.ubi.com/uk/anno-2205/56c4947888a7e300458b4570.html#start=29


Conference papers and conference proceedings (published and unpublished)


Citing conference papers (published or unpublished)


When citing conference papers by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be
presented as shown previously .Key points:

  •  Please note that when using information from conference papers, you need to cite the author (for published material) or presenter (for unpublished material) of the paper and not the organisation who held the conference or the editor of the conference proceedings.
  • The whole conference proceedings would usually only appear in a bibliography rather than as a cited source, as you would normally cite from a conference paper.
  • Please note, if any elements of the reference are not ascertainable, such as the editor or publisher details then leave these out, as in the example below.
  • An online conference paper will usually be downloadable as a PDF document. Please note that quite often the page numbers of the downloaded paper will start at page 1 rather than reflecting its position in the conference proceedings, which is the case for the example reference below.

Referencing conference proceedings


When referencing conference proceedings, you should provide the following information in the
format displayed below:
Name of organisation. (Year of publication) Title of conference (including number of annual conference if given) (in italics). Volume number if applicable. Location of conference (venue, city), date of conference. Editor’s (or Chair’s) Surname/s, Initial/s. (ed/s.)(if given). Place of publication:
Publisher.


Example


Academy of International Business. (2001) Proceedings of the 28th annual conference of the Academy of International Business (UK chapter) International business in the 21st century: change and continuity - strategies, institutions, regulations and operations. Vol. 1. Manchester
Metropolitan University Business School, Manchester, 6th-7th April 2001. McDonald, F. and Tuselman, H. (eds.) Manchester: Manchester  Metropolitan University Business School.


Referencing published conference papers – print copy


When referencing a paper from conference proceedings, you should provide the following
information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of conference paper.’ In (in italics) Name of organisation. Title of conference (including number of annual conference if given) (in italics). Volume number if applicable. Location of conference (venue, city), date of conference. Editor’s (or Chair’s) Surname/s, Initial/s. (ed/s.) (if given) Place of publication: Publisher, first and last page numbers of paper.


Example


Kuznetsov, A. and Kuznetsova, O. (2001) ‘The progress of market culture in Russia and managerial response.’ In Academy of International Business. Proceedings of the 28th annual conference of the Academy of International Business (UK chapter) International business in the 21st century: change and continuity - strategies, institutions, regulations and operations. Vol. 1. Manchester Metropolitan University Business School, Manchester, 6th–7th April 2001. McDonald, F. and Tuselman, H. (eds.) Manchester: Manchester Metropolitan University Business School, pp. 471- 488.


Referencing published conference papers – online copy


When referencing published conference papers available online, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of conference paper.’ In (in italics) Name of organisation. Title of conference (including number of annual conference if given) (in italics). Volume number if applicable. Location of conference (venue, city), date of conference. Editor’s
(or Chair’s) Surname/s, Initial/s. (ed/s.) (if given) Place of publication: Publisher, first and last page numbers of paper. [Online] [Access date] URL


Example


Brookes, A. and Clark, C. (2001) ‘Narrative dimensions of transformative learning.’ In Adult Education Research Conference. Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Adult Education Research Conference. Michigan State University, East Lansang, MI, 1st – 3rd June, pp. 1-7. [Online] [Accessed on 3rd April 2018] http://newprairiepress.org/aerc/2001/papers/12/


Referencing unpublished conference papers (paper presented at a conference)


When referencing an unpublished conference paper, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, initial/s. (Year of conference) ‘Title of paper.’ Paper presented at: Title of conference (in italics). Location of conference (venue, city), date of conference. [NB: no page numbers are needed]


Example


Meagher, K. (2007) ‘The importance of public affairs in the business training sector.’ Paper presented at: The Regional Public Affairs Conference: giving the North a voice in Westminster: adding value through public affairs. Manchester Metropolitan University Business School, Manchester, 20th March.

 

Referencing a conference presentation document


Author’s surname/s, initial/s. (Year of conference) Title of paper (in italics). [Type of document] Title of conference, Location of conference (venue, city), date of conference. [Online] [Access date] URL


Example


Woods, L. (2018) How do computing students use the library? [PowerPoint presentation]
Librarians’ Information Literacy Annual Conference, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, 4th April 2018. [Online] [Accessed on 13th May 2019] https://www.slideshare.net/infolit_group/how-docomputing-students-use-the-library-woods
 


Discussion papers


Citing discussion papers


When citing discussion papers by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown previously.


Referencing print discussion papers


When referencing print discussion papers, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) Title of paper (in italics). Organisation name discussion paper number. Place of publication: Publisher


Example


Duncan, B. and Trejo, S. J. (2011) Low-skilled immigrants and the U.S. labor market. IZA Discussion Paper no. 5964. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor.


Referencing online discussion papers


When referencing online discussion papers, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) Title of paper (in italics). Organisation name discussion paper number. Place of publication: Publisher. [Online] [Date accessed] URL


Example


Duncan, B. and Trejo, S. J. (2011) Low-skilled immigrants and the U.S. labor market. IZA Discussion Paper no. 5964. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor. [Online] [Accessed on 3rd March 2016] http://ftp.iza.org/dp5964.pdf


Dissertations/theses


Citing dissertations/theses


When citing dissertations by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented
as shown previously.


Referencing dissertations/theses – print copy


Key points:

  • Degree statement refers to whether the dissertation/thesis was for the award of B.A., B.Sc., M.A., M.Sc., Ph.D. etc.

Taking the above into account, when referencing a dissertation, you should provide the following
information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, initial/s. (Year of submission) Title of thesis (in italics). Degree statement.
Name of the awarding institution.


Example


Gillen, J. K. (1998) An investigation into young children’s telephone discourse. Ph.D. Manchester Metropolitan University.


Referencing dissertations/theses – online copy


When referencing online dissertations/theses, you should provide the following information in the
format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of submission) Title of thesis (in italics). Degree statement. Name of the awarding institution. [Online] [Access date] URL


Example


Strokosch, K. (2012) Understanding the co-production of public services: the case of asylum seekers in Glasgow. Ph.D. The University of Edinburgh. [Online] [Accessed on 9th September 2019] https://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/7885


Ebook readers


PLEASE NOTE: Downloadable books read on an ebook reader only should be cited and referenced as below. When citing and referencing ebooks located and accessed via the Library website, they should be referenced in the same manner as a print copy of a book, as outlined on page 10 of this guide.


Citing ebook readers


When citing information from ebook readers by paraphrasing the information will be presented as shown previously.


Direct quotes


When citing a direct quote from an ebook that contains page numbers the information should be presented as shown previously. If the ebook does not provide page numbers, you will need to cite the information using the location number indicated instead, as shown in the first example
below. If no location is indicated, then use the chapter number, as shown in the second example below.


Examples


Research indicates (Burrows, 2009:loc 23) …
In his work, Bowyer (2003:chapter 3) suggests…


Referencing ebook readers


Taking the above into account, when referencing a downloadable book accessed on an ebook reader, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) Title of book (in italics). Edition if applicable., [name of ebook reader] Place of publication: Publisher.


Examples


Burrows, A., Parsons, A., Price, G. and Pilling, G. (2009) Chemistry³: introducing inorganic, organic and physical chemistry. [Kindle Fire] Oxford: Oxford University Press.


EU documents/legislation


EU legislation is also known as regulations, directives, or decisions.


Citing EU documents/legislation


When citing EU legislation by paraphrasing or using direct quotes, you should provide the Type, number and date of the piece of legislation in the format displayed below. The order the legislation number and date appear in the citation should follow the order they appear on the legislation document, as shown in the examples below:
Name, number and year of the piece of legislation.


Examples


(Council Regulation, 1907/2006)
(Council Directive, 2014/94)


Direct quotes


To quote directly you will need to add the page number at the end of the citation, as shown in the examples below.


Examples


(Council Regulation, 1907/2006:45)
(Council Directive, 2014/94:15)


Referencing EU documents/legislation


When referencing EU legislation, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Legislation type Legislation number (including year) and title. Publication details, including journal title volume (in italics), date and page numbers.


Examples


Council Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) establishing a European Chemicals Agency. Official Journal L 396, 30/12/2006 pp. 1 – 849.
Council Directive 2014/94/EU of 22 October 2014 on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure. Official Journal L 307, 28/10/2014 pp. 1 – 20.

 

Excel file


Citing an Excel file


When citing data from an Excel file, the information will be presented as shown as previously.

Please note: You do not need to treat citing data from an excel spreadsheet as a direct quote. Therefore, you do not need to use single quotation marks, or a page number in the bracketed citation. Instead, add additional information in the reference, if required, to help direct the reader to
the specific data used.


Referencing an Excel file


When referencing an Excel file, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below. If appropriate, enter additional information for example a tab number or section title, after the title of the file, as in the example below.
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. or Name of organisation. (Year of publication) Title of file (in italics).
(Title of tab/section title) Name of organisation (if not already included as the author). [Online]
[Date accessed] URL


Example


Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy. (2020) Trade union membership statistics 2019: tables. (Table 1.1) [Online] [Accessed on 22nd June 2020]https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/trade-union-statistics-2019


Exhibition catalogues


Citing exhibition catalogues


When citing exhibition catalogues by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be
presented as shown on previously.


Referencing exhibition catalogues


Key point:

  • If it is not clear who the author/editor of the exhibition catalogue is, use the gallery name in place of the author/editor as shown in the example below.

When referencing exhibition catalogues, you should provide the following information in the format
displayed below:
Surname of author/editor, Initial/s. (Year) Title of catalogue (in italics). Details of exhibition (as
stated on catalogue) Gallery, date. Place of publication: Publisher.


Example


Serpentine Gallery. (2005) RirkritTiravanija: a retrospective (tomorrow is another fine day).
Catalogue to accompany exhibition held at Serpentine Gallery, 5th July to 21st August 2005. London: Serpentine Gallery.


Referencing a work of art in an exhibition catalogue


When referencing a work of art in an exhibition catalogue, you should provide the following
information in the format displayed below:
Surname of artist, Initial/s. (Year) ‘Title of work of art.’ Description of work of art (if applicable). In Surname of author/editor, Initial/s, or Gallery name. (Year) Title of catalogue (in italics). Details of exhibition (as stated on catalogue) Gallery, date. Place of publication: Publisher, page  number/s of Work of art.


Example


Tiravanija, R. (1992) ‘Untitled 1992 (free).’ Installation at 303 Gallery, New York. In Serpentine Gallery. (2005) RirkritTiravanija: a retrospective (tomorrow is another fine day). Catalogue to accompany exhibition held at Serpentine Gallery, 5th July to 21st August 2005. London: Serpentine
Gallery, pp. 59-60.


Films/DVDs/videos


Citing films/DVDs/videos


When citing information taken from films/DVDs/videos you will need to use the title and year, with
the exception of some extra features on DVDs/videos – see the sections on ‘Citing extra features on DVDs/videos: film commentary’ and ‘Citing extra features on DVDs/videos: interviews with film director/s’ for information on these exceptions. Sometimes when citing from a film, DVD or video you are not citing the owner/creator of the source. Instead, you may be citing someone else speaking. In this instance you need to present your citation differently, including introducing the ‘speaker/s’ name in your writing. Please refer to the FAQ on the online version of this guide ‘Citing someone who is not the author of the source’ for further instruction. When citing about the content of the film (rather than what someone has said, such as character in the film) you should present the citation as below) If the title of the film/DVD/video is long, you need to use the full title the first time you refer to it in your assignment. However, the title can be abbreviated from then on, as in the first example below.


Examples


To Kill a Burglar: the Tony Martin story (TM story, 2006) addressed the issue of…
The Matrix Reloaded (2003) highlights…


Direct quotes


To quote directly you need the time at which the words were spoken in the film/DVD/video.


Example


…states The Terminator, ‘I’ll be back’ (The Terminator, 1984:36mins 22).


Referencing films


Key points:

  • You should only reference a film using the following format if you have watched it at a ‘screening’, for example at a cinema, lecture theatre or gallery. In this instance, you should state the type of media as [Film] and indicate the place of production and production company, if ascertainable.
  • The order in which the surname and initial/s of the director/s is presented, is opposite to the order in which the names of author/s of books/journal articles/internet sources etc. are presented. Here the director’s initial/s are presented before the surname.

Taking the above into account, when referencing a film, you should provide the following
information in the format displayed below:
Title of the Film (in italics). (Year of production) Director’s initial/s. surname/s. [Film] Place of
production: Production Company.


Example


The Wind that Shakes the Barley. (2006) Directed by K. Loach. [Film] UK: UK Film Council.


Referencing DVDs/videos


Key points:

  • If you have viewed a film on a DVD or video you should reference it as shown below, and state the place of distribution and distribution company.
  • The order in which the surname and initial/s of the director/s is presented, is opposite to the order in which the names of author/s of books/journal articles/online sources etc. are presented. Here the director’s initial/s are presented before the surname

Taking the above into account, when referencing a DVD or video, you should provide the following
information in the format displayed below:
Title of the DVD/video (in italics). (Year of production) Director’s initial/s. surname. Material type,
either [DVD] or [Video] Place of distribution: Distribution company.


Examples


The Matrix Reloaded. (2003) Directed by A. and L. Wachowski. [DVD] Los Angeles: Warner Brothers Inc.
Domestic Violence Prevention Video for Schools. (2003) Directed by T. Debbonaire. [Video] London: Westminster Domestic Violence Forum.


Citing extra features on DVDs/videos: film commentaries


When citing from a film commentary that you have viewed on a DVD/video, you will need to use the surname/s of the commentator/s and the year of the commentary as follows:
(NB: Also see instruction on citing three or more authors).
The surname/s of the commentator/s and the year of the commentary.


Example


Making the film The Player is described as ... (Altman and Tonkin, 2001)


Direct quotes


To quote directly you need to include the time at which the words were spoken in the film or DVD/video.


Example


‘When making the film The Player…’ (Altman and Tonkin, 2001:1min 56)


Referencing extra features on DVDs/videos: film commentaries


When referencing a film commentary that you have viewed on a DVD/video you should provide the
following information in the format displayed below:
Commentator’s Surname/s, Initial/s. (Year) ‘Film commentary.’ Title of the DVD/video (in italics).
Director’s initial/s. surname/s. Material type, either [DVD] or [Video] Place of distribution: Distribution Company.


Example


Altman, R. and Tonkin, M. (2001) ‘Film commentary.’ The Player. Directed by R. Altman. [DVD] USA: Pathė.


Citing extra features on DVDs/videos: interviews with film director/s


When citing information from an interview with a film director that you have viewed on a DVD/video, you will need to use the surname/s of the interviewee/s and the year of the interview as follows:
(NB: Also see instruction on citing three or more authors).
The surname/s of the interviewee/s and the year of the interview.


Example


In an interview about The Matrix Reloaded, the director expressed… (Wachowski, 2003)


Direct quotes


To quote directly you need to include the time at which the words were spoken in the DVD/video.


Example


‘When making the film The Matrix Reloaded…’ (Wachowski, 2003:3mins 22)


Referencing extra features on DVDs/videos: interviews with film director/s


When referencing an interview with a film director that you have viewed on a DVD/video, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Interviewee’s Surname/s, Initial/s. (Year) ‘Title of interview.’ Interviewed by interviewer’s initial/s. surname. Title of the DVD/video (in italics). Director’s initial/s. surname/s. Material type, either [DVD] or [Video] Place of distribution: Distribution Company.


Example


Wachowski, A. (2003) ‘Interview with A. Wachowski.’ Interviewed by L. Jones. The Matrix Reloaded. Directed by A. and L. Wachowski. [DVD] Los Angeles: Warner Brothers Inc.


Citing extra features on DVDs/videos: documentary


When citing from documentaries found on DVDs/videos you should present the information as shown in the section on: Citing films/DVDs/videos.


Referencing extra features on DVDs/videos: documentary


When referencing a documentary that was viewed as an extra feature on a DVD/video, you should
provide the following information in the format displayed below:
‘Title of documentary.’ (Year) Produced by producer’s initial/s. surname/s. Title of DVD/video (in italics). Director’s initial/s. surname/s. Material type, either [DVD] or [Video] Place of distribution: Distribution Company.


Example


‘Hitchcock: the early years.’ (2001) Produced by D. Lemon. The 39 Steps. Directed by A. Hitchcock. [DVD] UK: Carlton Visual.


Citing films accessed online


When citing films accessed online, the information should be presented as shown in the section on:
Citing Films/DVDs/Videos.


Referencing films accessed online


When referencing a film accessed online, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Title of the Film (in italics). (Year of production) Director’s initial/s. surname/s. [Online] Available through (name of online provider). [Date accessed]


Example


Slumdog Millionaire. (2008) Directed by D. Boyle. and L. Tandan. [Online] Available through Netflix. [Accessed on 3rd October 2013]
12 Years a Slave. (2016) Directed by S. McQueen. [Online] Available through Box of Broadcasts. [Accessed on 25th June 2020] 


Foreign language sources


Citing foreign language sources


When citing foreign language articles or books by paraphrasing or using direct quotes, the information will be presented as shown previously.


Referencing foreign language sources


Key points:

  • The translated English title (of the book or journal article) should be added in brackets following the original language title.

When referencing foreign language sources, you should provide the following information in the
format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, initial/s. (Year of publication) Title of book (in italics). (English translation of
title.) Place of publication: Publisher.


Example


Sand, G. (1932) Histoire de ma vie. (History of my life.) Paris: Calmann-Levy.

 

Journal article 


Author’s surname/s, initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of journal article.’ (English translation of journal article.) Title of journal (in italics), Volume number(Issue number) first and last page numbers of whole journal article.


Example


Kamp, K. (2010) ‘Entre el trabajo y el juego: perspectivas sobre la infancia en el suroeste norteamericano.’ (Work and play: perspectives on children in the American Southwest.) Complutum, 21(2) pp. 103-120.


Newspaper article – online editions


Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of article.’ (English translation of article
title.) Title of newspaper (in italics). [Online] Date of publication. [Date accessed] URL


Example


El País. (2015) ‘La Semana Santa con más turistas de los últimos ocho años.’ (The Holy Week with the most tourists in the past eight years.) El País. [Online] 7th April. [Accessed on 19th December 2017] https://elpais.com/ccaa/2015/04/07/andalucia/1428434394_012889.html


General Reports


Citing general reports


When citing general reports by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown previously.


Referencing print copy general reports


Key points:

  • If there is no report code or number on the report, leave this field blank as in the first example below.

When referencing a report that is not a market or annual report, you should provide the following
information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. or Name of organisation. (Year of publication) Title of report (in
italics). Place of publication: Publisher. (Report code and number)


Examples


Lowden, K., Hall, S., Elliot, D. and Lewin, J. (2011) Employers’ perceptions of the employability skills of new graduates. London: Edge Foundation.
ECOTEC. (2003) Guidance on mapping social enterprise: final report to the DTI Social Enterprise Unit. London: ECOTEC Research and Consulting Ltd. (C2453)


Referencing online general reports


NB: If the report you are using is a PDF you have located online, please see section for 'Online PDF document'. If you want to reference a report that is not a market or annual report that you have found on the internet, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. or Name of organisation. (Year of publication) Title of report (in
italics). [Online] [Date accessed] URL


Example


RIBA. (2011) Good design – it all adds up. [Online][Accessed on 24th April 2012] http://www.architecture.com/Files/RIBAHoldings/PolicyAndInternationalRelations/Policy/Goodde signitalladdsup.pdf


Government Command papers


Command papers include: White Papers, which present a statement of the government’s policy and Green Papers, which are discussion papers or reports that are presented to the Royal commission or departmental committees. It is also useful to know that sometimes the word ‘command’, on command papers and in some reference lists may be abbreviated to ‘Cmnd’, ‘Cmd’, ‘Cd’, ‘Cm’, or ‘CP’.


Citing Command papers


When citing a command paper you can use the name of the government department /organisation for which the publication was produced. Sometimes the chairperson’s name is used for the name of the report, if this is commonly known, but you still need to include the name of the government department/organisation, as shown in the examples below.


Examples

Using the department’s name


The name of the department must be written in full when you first refer to it in your work, followed by the acronym in brackets. The acronym can then be used for subsequent mentions of the department, as shown below:
(The Department of Education and Science [DES], 1985) claims that…
…as stated by the DES (1985) in their paper.


Using the chair’s name


The Swann Report (Department of Education and Science [DES], 1985) has found that…
…as highlighted by the Swann Report (DES, 1985)


Direct quotes


When citing a direct quote from a command paper, you need to provide the chairperson’s name and/or the name of the department, the year followed by the page number:


Example


The Swann Report (DES, 1985:399) highlights that terminology was already shifting and ‘…some educationists now talk of home and/or community or national languages rather than mother tongues’.


Referencing Command papers


Key points:

  • Most government publications will have an official reference number. If the paper you have read does not have a number, leave this field blank.
  • Use the word Command, or the abbreviation (cmnd, cmd, or cm) as it appears on the document.
  • Usually, government White and Green papers are published by either Her Majesty’s Stationery Office (HMSO) or by The Stationery Office (TSO). The abbreviated versions of the publisher’s name can be used in the reference list.

Taking the above into account, when referencing a command paper, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Government department/organisation for which the publication was produced. (Year of publication) Title (in italics). The word or an abbreviation of the word ‘Command’. Official reference number if there is one, place of publication: Publisher (Name of chairperson if there is one and the word Report)


Examples


Department of Education and Science. (1985) Education for all: report of the committee of inquiry into the education of children from ethnic minority groups. Cmnd. 9453, London: HMSO. (Swann Report) Department of Trade and Industry. (2005) Our energy future: creating a low carbon economy. Cmnd. 5761, London: TSO.


Guest presentations


Citing guest presentations


When citing guest presentations by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be
presented as shown previously.
Please note that it is the presenter’s surname/s you will use.
To quote directly, you will need to use the presenter’s surname/s, the year and the word presentation, in the format shown in the example below:


Direct quotes


And Jones (2012:presentation) prophetically stated that ‘…the two departments would merge by
April this year’.


Referencing guest presentations


When referencing information from a guest seminar/lecture/presentation, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of presentation) Title of lecture. Name of institution where the presentation has taken place, city of presentation, date of presentation.


Example


Jones, R. (2012) The future of IT and Library Services. Presentation at Wessex University, Wessex,
10th January.


Illustrations: e.g. images, pictures, diagrams, tables.


When using an illustration from a source, you will have to refer to it three times within your work: a caption underneath the illustration; a citation within the main body of your text to explain why you have included the illustration in your work; and an entry in your reference list.


Caption elements for illustrations


You will usually have to give the illustration a title; this can be your own words or quoted from the original text. As these types of illustrations are exact reproductions (i.e. treated as a direct quote) you will always need a page number (or the word online for sources without a page number, such as sources found online).
NB: When using tables in your work, the caption should state Table #. For all other illustrations
use Figure #.
Figure # (in italics): title of illustration (Source: Author, year: page number or online)


Example


Figure 1: Data showing water usage in the North West 2010-2013 (Source: Defra, 2014:online).


Citing illustrations

Example


Figure 1 showing water usage in the North West from 2010 to 2013 (Defra, 2014:online)
demonstrates…


Referencing illustrations


The reference will depend on the type of source you have used. Please refer to the relevant section depending on whether you have used a book, webpage, journal article etc. For a Work of Art reproduced in a book, see the entry for ‘Reproduction in a book’ under the Works of Art section.


Journal articles


Citing journal articles


When citing journal articles by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown previously. 


Referencing journal articles


PLEASE NOTE: In most cases, an electronic journal article is referenced in the same way as a print copy of the article. This is because most electronic journals are simply scanned copies of the print version. However, there are exceptions to this, please see online journal section below.
Key points:

  • If there is no volume/issue number available, use the month or season in which the journal was published. You should place the month or season after the missing volume or issue number as shown in the examples below.
  •  Ensure you use pp. and state the page numbers of the first and last pages of the article. If you only state the first page number this will give the impression that the journal article is only one page long.
  • If there is no author’s name provided on an article use the publication title in place of this, as shown in the second example below.

Taking the above into account, when referencing a journal article, you should provide the following
information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of journal article.’ Title of journal (in italics), Volume number(Issue number) first and last page numbers of whole journal article.


Examples


Mar, R., DeYoung, C., Higgins, D. and Peterson, J. (2006) ‘Self-liking and self-competence separate self-evaluation from self-deception: associations with personality, ability, and achievement.’ Journal of Personality, 74(4) pp. 1047-1078.
Accountancy. (2009) ‘Innocent wants VAT relief on smoothies.’ Accountancy, 143(1389) p. 14.

Morven, F. and Cunnigham, J. (2019) 'Recruiting and retaining of indigenous probation officers: steps to creating diverse workplaces that reflect community cultures.' Equality, Diversity and Inclusion, 39(2) pp. 145-165. 


Issue number missing


Kitwood, T. (1988) ‘The technical, the personal, and the framing of dementia.’ Social Behaviour: An International Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 3, June, pp. 83-91.


Volume number missing


Income Data Services. (2008) 'Establishing an employer brand.' IDS HR Studies, (872) June, pp. 2-8.


Online journal articles


As mentioned above, in most cases, an electronic journal article is referenced in the same way as a print copy of the article. This is because most electronic journals are simply scanned copies of the print version. However, there are exceptions to this where articles are only available online, or, appear online ahead of the print publication. If this is the case, you will be required to format the reference differently to a print journal article, using slightly different or additional elements for the full reference. This is in order to provide sufficient information so that others can find the same article. 

General rules:

  • If the online journal article has a download option, then use this to identify page numbers, particularly for citing direct quotes, where a page number is required. Please note that quite often the page numbers of the downloaded article will start at page 1 rather than reflecting its position in the journal.
  • If available, include the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) of the article when referencing online journal articles. This is the unique number for the online article and can usually be found on the article or abstract page.
  • If there is no DOI available, use the URL instead.
First online journal articles


It is important to indicate, when referencing a journal article that appears online ahead of the print publication, that this is the case. This is because when the article is assigned to a print issue at a later date, the publication date details will change. Publishers may refer to these articles as ‘first online’, ‘online first’, ‘early view’, ‘article in press’ or ‘provisional article’ (this specific terminology should be included in the reference – see below) and at the time of access may not have volume, issue or page number details.
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of journal article.’ Title of journal (in italics). [Online] ‘First online’ (or publisher’s terminology) online publication date. [Access date] DOI: number


Example


Watkins, L., Kuhn, M., Ledbetter-Cho, K., Gevarter, C. and O’Reilly, M. (2015) ‘Evidence-based social communication interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder.’ The Indian Journal of Pediatrics. [Online] ‘First online’ published 19th  November 2015. [Accessed on 16th May 2016] DOI: 10.1007/s12098-015-1938-5


Online only journal article


Some journal titles are only published online and are not available in print format. As such, often they do not have the same details as print journal articles, for example no issue number. If this is the case and other details are provided, such as an article number, include this instead as in the
first example below.
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of journal article.’ Title of journal (in italics), Volume number(Issue number) or Volume number:article number first and last page numbers of whole journal article (if applicable). [Online] [Access date] DOI: or URL


Examples


McCulloch, P. F., Warren, E. A. and DiNovo, K. M. (2016) ‘Repetitive diving in trained rats still increases Fos production in brainstem neurons after bilateral sectioning of the anterior ethmoidal nerve.’ Frontiers in Physiology, 7:148, pp. 1-12. [Online] [Accessed on 26th April 2016] DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2016.00148
McMahon, C. R. (1997) ‘Hysterical academies: Lacan's theory of the four discourses.’ Internet Journal of Language, Culture and Society, 2, pp. 1-19. [Online] [Accessed on 12th January 2016] http://www.anialian.com/Hysterical_Academies.htm

 

Preprint journal article


Preprint journal articles have been accepted by the journal editorial team but have not been assigned to an issue, or, published online on the journal website. These articles can appear on preprint websites.

For articles on preprint websites, that have not been accepted by a journal, see the section on Preprint articles.

Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of journal article.’ Title of journal (in italics). Preprint Date (month and year) [Online] [Access date] DOI: number or URL


Fezzi, C. and Fanghella, V. (2020) ‘Real-time estimation of the short-run impact of COVID-19 on economic activity using electricity market data.’ Environmental and Resource Economics. Preprint July 2020. [Accessed on 23th July 2020] https://arxiv.org/abs/2007.03477
 


Journals: special issue


Key Points:
When citing and referencing a whole journal issue, use the editor/s name in place of the author/s
name.

  • You would normally only cite and reference a whole journal when it is a special issue with a common theme throughout all articles within that issue, and you are referring to a common theme in your work.
  • If you are citing from individual articles within a special issue, you should cite and reference each individual article in the format provided for journal articles.
  • An ordinary issue would not usually have a title, so again you should cite and reference the individual articles in the format provided for journal articles.
Citing journals: special issue


When citing from a special issue of a journal the information will be presented as shown previously, using the editor’s name/s in place of the author/s name, as shown in the referencing example below.


Referencing journals: special issue


When referencing a journal, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Editor’s surname/s, initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of issue.’ [Special issue] Title of Journal (in italics), volume number(issue number).


Example


Gimson, A. (ed.) (2012) ‘Nurturing creativity & innovation.’ [Special issue] Development and Learning in Organizations: an International Journal, 26(6).


Leaflets/posters


PLEASE NOTE: Please check with your programme team to clarify the suitability of using these sources in your work, as they may not be an acceptable form of reference for some programmes.


Citing leaflets/posters


When citing leaflets or posters the information will be presented as shown previously. If there is no creator’s name on the item use the organisation’s name that produced it.


Referencing leaflets/posters


If there is no publisher information provided, state the location the source was viewed (to replace the place of publication) and the date it was viewed (to replace the publisher), as shown in the second example below.
Taking the above into account, when referencing leaflets or posters, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. or Name of organisation. (Year of publication) Title or description (in italics). [Type of source e.g. leaflet or poster] Place of publication if available or location the medium was viewed: Publisher if available or date the information was viewed.


Examples


Counselling Service. (no date) Need to talk? [Leaflet] Manchester: Manchester Metropolitan University.
The National Student Survey. (no date) Be heard. [Poster] Reception area, Gaskell campus: Date viewed 29th January 2013.
If an author or organisation’s name is not present you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Description of the source (in italics). (Year of publication) [Type of source e.g. leaflet, poster] Place of publication if available or location the medium was viewed: Publisher if available or date the information was viewed.


Example


The Foyer-UNIAID accommodation bursaries. (2009) [Poster] Student services notice board, Didsbury campus: Date viewed 9th February 2009.


Lecture notes


PLEASE NOTE: Citing and referencing information from lecture notes is not recommended by certain courses. Please check with your programme team to clarify whether this is acceptable practice before you use this source.


Citing lecture notes


When citing lecture notes by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown previously.


Referencing lecture notes


Key points:

  • If the lecture notes do not have a title then write ‘no title’ where the title should be.
  • If there is no place of publication and publishing information it is safe to assume these will be the university you attend.
  • If you do not have the lecture number or module name you can leave this information out of the reference.

Taking the above into account, when referencing lecture notes, you should provide the following
information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of production) Title of the lecture notes (in italics). Place of publication: Publisher. Number of pages in handout, distribution date, the lecture number, module name.


Examples


Patel, H., Shields, E. and Inala, P. (2011) Using Harvard referencing to reference online sources. Manchester: Manchester Metropolitan University. 2-page handout, distributed on 15th March 2011.
Robinson, J. (2004) No title. Wolverhampton: University of Wolverhampton. 3-page handout,distributed on 13th March 2005 in lecture 3 for module ‘Teaching gymnastics’.


Magazine articles


Citing magazine articles


When citing magazine articles by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be
presented as shown previously.


Referencing magazine articles


In most instances, magazine articles are referenced as journal articles. Like journal articles, magazine articles that are accessed online and are also available in print are referenced in the same way as the print copy.


Key points

  • Use the month in place of the volume and issue number if the magazine is published by month, as in the second example below.
  • If no author’s name is displayed on the article, use the title of magazine at the start of the reference, in place of the author.
  • For print magazine articles accessed online, you may need to download the article to identify the page number/s.
  • See the section on Journal articles for further instruction if required.

Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of article.’ Title of magazine (in italics),
Volume number(Issue number) first and last page numbers of whole article.


Examples


Baker, S. (2000) ‘Wall Street darling to become the next billion-dollar baby.’ Apparel Industry
Magazine
, 61(12) p. 10.
Freud, E. (2019) 'In at the deep end.' Vogue, June, pp. 80-81.


Referencing online magazine articles


Online magazines articles are published on the magazine’s website only and are not available in print issues. Volume and issue numbers are therefore not specified.

For online magazine articles, follow the format for an Online newspaper article, as below.


Key points

  • If a specific date is provided (day and month, as in the below example), rather than a volume/issue number or month, this would identify the article as an online magazine article.
  • See the section on Newspaper articles (Online edition) for further instruction if required.

Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of article.’ Title of magazine (in italics).[Online] Date of publication. [Date accessed] URL


Example


Okwodu, J. (2017) ‘Was Fall 2017 the season curves conquered the runways?’ Vogue. [Online] 6th March. [Accessed on 22nd March 2018] http://www.vogue.com/article/curve-models-fall-2017-runways-size-diversity-in-fashion

Market reports/company and industry profiles/country reports


Citing market reports


When citing market reports by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown on previously.


Referencing market reports/company and industry profiles/country reports - print copy


When referencing market reports, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Name of research company or organisation. (Year of publication) Title of report (in italics). Date of report (month and year- if available). Edition if applicable., Place of publication: Publisher.


Example


Mintel. (2012) Coffee shops: UK. February 2012. London: Mintel Group.


Referencing market reports/company and industry profiles/country reports – online
copy


Key points:

  • If the URL for the webpage where the report was found requires you to login with a username and password, you need to use the homepage of the market report database in your reference, as in the example below. This will be the first page you view after you have logged into the database. Or, if available, use a permalink/stable URL, (this will usually be found on the abstract page) as in the example below.

Taking the above into account, when referencing a market report that you have accessed from an online database (such as Mintel), you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Name of research company or organisation. (Year of publication) Title of report (in italics). Date of report (month and year- if available). [Online] [Date accessed] URL


Examples


Mintel. (2012) Coffee shops: UK. February 2012. [Online] [Accessed on 14th April 2012] http://academic.mintel.com
Marketline. (2012) Adidas AG. October 2015. [Online] [Accessed on 1st October 2016] http://search.ebscohost.com.mmu.idm.oclc.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=dmhco&AN=ABC57279- 4FF3-4592-A48C-17D2E6B59C0F&site=ehost-live
Euromonitor International. (2017) Apparel and footwear in the United Kingdom. January 2017. [Online] [Accessed on 5th January 2018] http://www.portal.euromonitor.com.ezproxy.mmu.ac.uk/portal/analysis/tab

 

Newspaper articles


Citing newspaper articles


When citing newspaper articles by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be
presented as shown previously.


Referencing print copies of newspaper articles


Key points:

  • If you have used information from the supplement section you must state that you have done so, as shown in the first example below.
  • Some newspapers produce different editions throughout the day (e.g. First edition, Second edition, Evening edition etc.). If your copy has an edition you must state this, as shown in the first example below.
  • If there is no author then use the publication title in place of this.

Taking the above into account, when referencing a print copy of a newspaper, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of article.’ Name of newspaper (in italics). Name of supplement if applicable. Date of publication. Edition if applicable, Page number of article.


Examples


Moore, S. (2007) ‘Careers are calling.’ Manchester Evening News. MEN job search supplement. 18th January. City edition, p. 3.
Travis, A. and Topham, G. (2012) ‘Airlines raise pressure to relax border controls.’ The Guardian. 24th April. p. 8.

 

Referencing online newspaper articles

 

When referencing a newspaper article that you have found online, you need to put the information in the following format:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of article.’ Name of newspaper (in italics). [Online] Date of publication. [Date accessed] URL

 

Example

 

Arthur, C. (2012) ‘YouTube loses music clip copyright battle in court.’ The Guardian. [Online] 24th April. [Accessed on 24th April 2012] http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2012/apr/20/youtubemusic-clip-copyright-court

 

The Guardian. (2020) ‘LGBT+ marches from London to New York call for end to racism.’ The Guardian. [Online] 27th June. [Accessed on 3rd July 2020] https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jun/27/lgbt-marches-from-london-to-new-york-callfor-end-to-racism


Online audio

Citing online audio

 

When citing from an online audio source, the information will be presented as shown previously. However, instead of the author’s surname/s you should use the creator’s surname/s or the organisation’s name. The creator/owner of the video and the year.

 

Example

 

(UCL Institute of Education, 2018)


Direct quotes

 

To quote directly you need the time at which the words were spoken within the video

 

Example

 

(UCL Institute of Education, 2018:6 mins 23)


Sometimes when citing from an online video you are not citing the owner/creator of the source. Instead, you may be citing someone else speaking in the video. In this instance you need to present your citation differently, including introducing the ‘speaker/s’ name in your writing. Please refer to
the FAQ on the online version of this guide ‘Citing someone who is not the author of the source’ for further instruction.


Referencing an online audio

 

When referencing an online audio, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Owner/creator surname, initial/s. (Year of publication) Title (in italics). Name of organisation (if different to owner/creator). [Online audio] [Date accessed] URL

 

Example

 

UCL Institute of Education. (2018) What if… we really wanted to support schools facing the greatest challenge? [Online audio] [Accessed on 12th April 2018] https://soundcloud.com/ioelondon/whatif-we-really-wanted-to-support-schools-facing-the-greatest-challenge

For an online audio source that is an episode as part of a series, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Owner/creator surname, initial/s. (Year of publication) 'Title of episode.' Title (in italics). Name of organisation (if different to owner/creator). [Online audio] [Date accessed] URL

 

Example

 

Mad in America. (2017) 'Lucy Johnstone: the power threat meaning framework.' Mad in America: science, psychiatry and social justice. [Online audio] [Accessed on 29th November 2018] https://itunes.apple.com/gb/podcast/mad-in-america-science-psychiatry-and-socialjustice/id1212789850?mt=2&i=1000404875126

 

Online images or photos

Citing online images or photos

 

When citing images the information will be presented as shown previously. However, instead of the author’s surname/s you will use the creator’s surname/s or the organisation’s name. NB: Also see the section on Illustrations for further instruction on using online images or photos in your work.

Referencing online images or photos


Key points:

  • Occasionally, a year of publication may not be provided. If this is the case, you must state there is: no date.
  • If no title is available, instead provide a brief description of the image/photo. If there are a number of images/photos on the page where you accessed the information and they all show the same image, you do not need to distinguish between them. However you must make sure you do provide a description.

Taking the above into account, when referencing an online image or photo, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. OR name of organisation. (Year of publication) Title of image or description of image (in italics). Name of organisation (if not already stated). [Online image] [Date accessed] URL


Examples


Allison, C. (2007) Tornado picture. Oklahoma weather stock: photo and video stock by Charles Allison. [Online image] [Accessed on 16th February 2009] http://www.oklahomalightning.com/TornadoPics/TornadoPics.htm
Oxford Illustrated Science Encyclopaedia. (no date) Volcano. [Online image] [Accessed on 16th February 2009] http://www.oup.co.uk/oxed/children/oise/pictures/earth/volcano/


Online PDF documents


PLEASE NOTE: This referencing format should NOT be used to reference journal articles that have been found on electronic databases. Electronic journal articles should be referenced in the same way as paper copies; see section on ‘journal articles’.


Citing online PDF documents


When citing PDF documents by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown previously.

Referencing online PDF documents


Key points:

  • If the document does not state both a place of publication and the name of a publisher, you will need to say these details are unavailable by writing: Publisher details not available.
  • If only one of the publication details is missing you can use the following:

- if the place of publication is not provided use: Unknown place of publication.

- if the publisher information is not provided use: Unknown publisher.

  • If both the place of publication and the publisher details are missing then leave these elements out completely.

Taking the above into account, when referencing a PDF document, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. or Name of organisation. (Year of publication) Title (in italics). Edition if applicable., Place of publication if available: Publisher if ascertainable. [Online] [Date accessed] URL


Examples


Department for Education. (2014) The national curriculum in England: framework document. Unknown place of publication: Department for Education. [Online] [Accessed on 28th September 2017] https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file

/381344/Master_final_national_curriculum_28_Nov.pdf
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2011) Alcohol-use disorders: diagnosis, assessment and management of harmful drinking and alcohol dependence. CG115. Manchester: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. [Online] [Accessed on 4th January 2017]
https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg115/resources/alcoholuse-disorders-diagnosis-assessmentand-management-of-harmful-drinking-and-alcohol-dependence-pdf-35109391116229
The Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills. (2015) The framework for the inspection of local authority arrangements for supporting school improvement. Manchester: The Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills. [Online] [Accessed on 27th
February 2018] https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/f
ile/462244/Framework_for_the_inspection_of_local_authority_arrangements_for_supporting_sc
hool_improvement.pdf

 

Citing a chapter in an Online PDF document


When citing from a chapter in an Online PDF documents, by paraphrasing or using direct quotes, cite the chapter author/s and follow the guidance as shown on previously.


Referencing a Chapter in an Online PDF document


Surname of the author/s who wrote the chapter, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of the chapter.’ In (in italics) Surname of the editor/s, Initial/s. (ed/s.) Title (in italics). Edition if applicable. Place of publication if ascertainable: Publisher, first and last page numbers of the chapter. [Online] [Date accessed] URL


Example


Stansfeld, S., Clark, C., Bebbington, P., King, M., Jenkins, R. and Hinchliffe, S. (2016) ‘Common mental disorders.’ In McManus, S., Bebbington, P., Jenkins, R. and Brugha, T. (eds.) Mental health and wellbeing in England: adult psychiatric morbidity survey 2014. Leeds: NHS Digital, pp. 37-68. [Online] [Accessed on 28th November 2017] https://files.digital.nhs.uk/pdf/q/3/mental_health_and_wellbeing_in_england_full_report.pdf
 


Online videos


Citing online videos


Sometimes when citing from an online video you are not citing the owner/creator of the source. Instead, you may be citing someone else speaking in the video. In this instance you need to present your citation differently, including introducing the ‘speaker/s’ name in your writing. Please refer to the FAQ on the online version of this guide ‘Citing someone who is not the author of the source’ for further instruction. When citing videos that have been found online such as YouTube videos, and you are citing the creator/owner, you will need to cite the information as follows: The creator/owner of the video and the year.


Example


The video (MMU Library Services, 2014) briefly illustrates how to avoid…


Direct quotes


To quote directly you need the time at which the words were spoken within the video


Example


‘…we have the most extraordinary power to change lives with music and to involve people in music’ (TEDx Talks, 2001:1min 49).

Referencing online videos


When referencing an online video, for example a YouTube video, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Owner/creator. (Year) Title. (in italics) [Online video] [Date accessed] URL


Examples


MMU Library Services. (2014) How to Avoid Plagiarism. [Online video] [Accessed on 10th June 2014] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IicBnQl2czM
TEDx Talks. (2001) TEDxSydney: Richard Gill – The Value of Music Education. [Online video] [Accessed on 27th October 2016] https://www.youtube.com/wdatch?v=HeRus3NVbwE


Parliamentary debates (Hansard)


Citing parliamentary debates (Hansard)


When citing a parliamentary debate, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
(Abbreviation for House and Debate Date of debate)


Example


(HC Deb 9th December 2015)


Referencing a parliamentary debate (print copy)


When referencing a parliamentary debate (print copy), you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Abbreviation for House and Debate Date of debate, Volume number, Column number.


Example


HC Deb 9th December 2015, 603, col. 998.


Referencing a parliamentary debate (online version)


Abbreviation for House and Debate Date of debate, Volume number, Column number. [Online] [Access date] URL


Example


HC Deb 9th December 2015, 603, col. 998. [Online] [Accessed on 23rd February 2017] https://hansard.digiminster.com/Commons/2015-12-09/debates/15120945000001/MentalHealth


Parliamentary papers - online


Citing parliamentary papers – online


When citing a parliamentary paper found online, by paraphrasing or using direct quotes, the information will be presented as shown previously.

 

Referencing parliamentary papers – online


Key points:

  • Parliamentary papers will have an official reference number, for example, for House of Commons papers this will begin with HC.
  • Usually, Parliamentary papers are published by either Her Majesty’s Stationery Office (HMSO) or by The Stationery Office (TSO). The abbreviated versions of the publisher’s name can be used in the reference list.

Taking the above into account, when referencing parliamentary papers found online, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author surname/s, initial/s. or, Name of body/committee. (Year) Title of paper/report (in italics). Paper reference number. Place of publication: Publisher. [Online] [Date accessed] URL


Examples


Redfern, M., Keeling, J. and Powell, E. (2001) The Royal Liverpool Children’s Inquiry report. HC12-II. London: TSO. [Online] [Accessed on 21st March 2017] https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/250934/0012_ii.pdf
House of Commons Education Select Committee. (2010) The responsibilities of the Secretary of State: oral and written evidence taken before the Education Committee on the 28th July 2010. HC 395-i. London: TSO. [Online] [Accessed on 27th February 2017] https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201011/cmselect/cmeduc/395-i/395i.pdf

Patents


Citing a Patent


When citing a Patent, by paraphrasing or using direct quotes, the information will be presented as shown previously.


Referencing a Patent


Applicant of patent. (Year) Title of patent (in italics). Name of inventor/s (if different to applicant).Official patent series Patent Serial Number.


Example


SkyBell Technologies, Inc. (2015) Doorbell security and safety. Invented by Joseph Frank Scalisi.United States Patent 9,060,103 B2

 

Plays

 

Citing a play

 

When citing from a play by paraphrasing, the information will be presented as shown below:

The Playwright’s surname and the year the play was written or the year of the edition/reprint.

 

Examples

 

(Churchill, 1994)

(Shakespeare, 1995)

 

Direct quotes

 

Playwright’s surname, the year the play was written, or the year of the edition/reprint:act number (in Roman numerals).scene number.line number/s. If the script is not presented with act, scene and line numbers, use the page number, as shown in the second example below.

 

Examples

 

(Shakespeare, 1995:I.4.12)

(Churchill, 1994:6)

 

Citing more than one play by the same playwright

 

If you are discussing more than one play by the same playwright, if appropriate, introduce the title of the play (in italics) in your writing when you first mention it, and cite as above. Subsequent citations can then include the title of the play.

 

Examples

 

(Twelfth Night:I.4.12)

(The Skriker:6)

 

Referencing a play

 

When referencing a play, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:

Author, Initial/s. (Year of the edition) Title of play (in italics). Editor’s surname/s, initial/s. (ed/s.) if applicable. Edition if applicable., Place of publication: Publisher.

 

Examples

 

Shakespeare, W. (1995)Twelfth Night. Warren, R. and Wells, T. (eds.) Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Churchill, C. (1994) The Skriker. London: Nick Hern Books.

 

Preprint articles


Citing preprint articles


When citing a preprint article, by paraphrasing or using direct quotes, the information will be presented as shown previously.


Referencing preprint articles


When referencing preprint articles, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author/s surname, initial/s. (Year) Title of article (in italics). Preprint date (month and year). [Online] [Accessed date] URL


Example


Christensen, T. M. (2020) Existence and uniqueness of recursive utilities without boundedness. Preprint July 2020. [Online] [Accessed on 1st August 2020] https://arxiv.org/abs/2008.00963 

 

Press release


Citing a press release


When citing a press release, by paraphrasing or using direct quotes, the information will be presented as shown previously.


Referencing a press release


Name of organisation/body/office. (Year of publication) Title of page (in italics). Date of press release (day and month), press release number (if available). Organisational department (if different to author). [Online] [Date accessed] URL


Examples


Office of Public Affairs. (2015) Nine FIFA officials and five corporate executives indicted for racketeering conspiracy and corruption. 27th May, press release no. 15-677. Department of Justice, US. [Online] [Accessed on 8th November 2017] https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/nine-fifa-officialsand-five-corporate-executives-indicted-racketeering-conspiracy-and
Natural England. (2016) England's largest outdoor learning project reveals children more motivated to learn when outside. 14th July. [Online] [Accessed on 26th May 2020] https://www.gov.uk/government/news/englands-largest-outdoor-learning-project-revealschildren-more-motivated-to-learn-when-outside
 


Religious texts


Citing religious texts


To cite a religious text you would do so as follows, whether or not it is a direct quote or paraphrased:
Name of religious text, Book, text marker e.g. chapter and verse.


Example


…is a Bible quote often stated (John, 3:16).
…is a tenet of the faith (The Koran, The Cow, 2:238)
A powerful affirmation is found in the Torah (Devarim, 4:35)…


Referencing religious texts


When referencing religious texts, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Full title of text, including sub-title (in italics). (Year of publication) Place of publication: Publisher.


Examples


The Bible: authorized King James version. (2008) Oxford: Oxford Paperbacks.
The Torah: the Five Books of Moses: pocket edition. (2000) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.


Secondary sources


PLEASE NOTE: Secondary sources are authors who have been cited in the book/journal etc. that you have read but whose original work you have not read.


Citing secondary sources


When citing within the text you need to include the surname of the author whose idea you are using and the surname of the author of the book/journal from which you found the information. Surname of author/s you are citing and the year of the source it was originally published, the surname of the author/s of the source in which you have found the information and the year of the publication in which you have found it.


Example


Extract taken from the book by Whitehead and Mason (2003:186):
A better way of appreciating the skills of reflective practice is to use Burns and Bulman’s (2000) framework. This involves a five-element scheme for reflection in which the first is selfawareness. Self-awareness is important for many walks of life and it is vital in nursing.


If you wanted to mention Burns and Bulman’s framework based on the information you have read in Whitehead and Mason’s book you would cite the authors as follows:
Burns and Bulman (2000, cited in Whitehead and Mason, 2003) have developed a 5 step framework for reflection. The first stage of this framework focuses on self-awareness.


In the above example you have shown that you are using Burns and Bulman’s (2000) framework on reflection in your assignment. However, because you did not find this information from the original paper by Burns and Bulman that was published in 2000, you have made it clear that the information was found in Whitehead and Mason’s book which was published in 2003.


Direct quotes from a secondary author


When quoting information in your assignment you might want to use the same direct quote that the author of the book/journal etc. used. For example:
The following information was taken from Mander (2009) on page 118. The information was presented as a direct quote from an original source:
‘Weeping alone is painful. Grief is most powerfully eased when it can be shared’ (Carmichael, 1991:107).
If you want to use this quote in your assignment you will not use the page number that is presented next to Carmichael’s name i.e. 107. Instead you will need to present the page number of the source that you found the information from i.e. 118.


Example


Dealing with the loss of a loved one can be difficult, especially when an individual is grieving alone. Sharing this grief can help alleviate the distress according to Carmichael (1991, cited in Mander, 2009:118) who argued that ‘weeping alone is painful. Grief is most powerfully eased when it can be shared’.


Paraphrasing a quote from a secondary source


You may wish to quote the work of a secondary author whose work has been paraphrased. For example:
The following information was taken from Mander (2009) on page 118. The information was not a direct quote, but was instead presented in Mander’s own words: In their Turkish-based survey to identify factors associated with crying, Kukullu and Keser (2006) demonstrated that crying is culturally-influenced, even culturally-determined.


Example


Mourning the loss of a loved one has been found to be ‘…culturally-influenced, even culturallydetermined’ according to Kukullu and Keser (2006, cited in Mander, 2009:118).


Referencing secondary sources


Key points:

  • When referencing a secondary source, you only need to mention the author/s of the source (be it a book, journal, online article etc.) of where the information was found and not the author whose idea you cited.

In your reference list, you only need to reference the original source you used. If you used Burns and Bulman’s idea in your assignment, but did not find this information from the original source and instead found the information in Whitehead and Mason’s book, you need to reference Whitehead and Mason’s book.


Example


Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) Title of book (in italics). Edition if applicable., Place of publication: Publisher.
Whitehead, E. and Mason, T. (2003) Study skills for nurses. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
If Whitehead and Mason’s publication was a journal then you would reference the information as a journal.


Example


Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of journal article.’ Title of journal (in italics), Volume number (Issue number) Page numbers of whole journal article.
Whitehead, E. and Mason, T. (2003) ‘Study skills for nurses.’ Social Science and Medicine, 58(2) pp. 369-378.


Software


Citing software


When citing software, by paraphrasing or using direct quotes, the information should be presented
as shown below:
The name of the software developer or owner and the year the software was released.


Example


(IBM Corporation, 2016)


Direct quotes


(IBM Corporation, 2016: online)


Referencing software


When referencing software, you should provide the following information in the format displayed
below:
Software developer/owner. (Year of release) Title of software (in italics). Version/edition number. [Software] Place of publication/production: Publisher. [Access date] download URL if available


Example


IBM Corporation. (2016) SPSS Statistics. Version 24. [Software] New York: IBM Corporation. [Accessed on 30th March 2017]


Songs


Citing songs


When citing from a song, by paraphrasing or using a direct quotes, the information should be presented as shown below:
The artist, and the year the song was released.


Example


In the song Imagine (Lennon, 1971) …

Referencing songs from a single (a or b sides)


When referencing a song from a single, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Artist’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of release) ‘Title of song.’ Title of single (in italics). [format, medium] Location of record label: Record label.


Example


Lennon, J. (1971) ‘Working class hero.’ Imagine. [single, vinyl record] UK: Apple.


Referencing songs from an album


When referencing a song from an album, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Artist’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of release) ‘Title of song.’ Title of album (in italics). [format, medium] Location of record label: Record label.


Example


Lennon, J. (1971) ‘Imagine.’ Imagine. [album, vinyl record] UK: Apple.


Referencing an album


When referencing an album, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Artist’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of release) Title of album (in italics). [format, medium] Location of record label: Record label.


Example


Lennon, J. (1971) Imagine. [album, CD] UK: Apple.

 

Referencing songs accessed online


When referencing a song accessed online, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Artist’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of release) ‘Title of song.’ Title of album (in italics). [Online] Available through (online provider). [Access date]


Example


Lennon, J. (1971) ‘Imagine.’ Imagine. [Online] Available through Spotify. [Accessed 4th September 2019]
 


Sources with no author


Check the relevant reference type in this guide for instruction on what to use when no author’s name is provided on the source. In many cases the organisation’s name is used in place of the author, for example, for online sources such as webpages. In some instances the publication title is used in place of the author, for example journal articles and newspaper articles, where no author/reporter’s name is present.


Anonymous and anon


Where ‘Anon’ or ‘Anonymous’ are clearly stated on the source of information, use this in place of the author.


Example:


Anonymous. (1996) Primary colors: a novel of politics. New York: Vintage.


Author unknown


There may be rare instances where no author’s name is present, the information was not produced by an organisation, the reference type does not specify using the publication title in place of the author, or Anon/Anonymous is not clearly stated on the source. You may come across this in both printed and online sources. In these instances, you should state ‘Author unknown’ in place of the author.

 

Speech


Citing a speech


When citing a speech by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown previously, using the speaker/s name in the citation.


Referencing a speech


When referencing a speech, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below. You also need to consult the relevant section of the guide and follow the reference format for the source in which the speech was located.
Key points:

  • Speeches can be accessed in different formats, for example, a transcript, a video recording, an audio recording. Therefore, you need to indicate the format in your reference.
  • In your reference, the details of the speech are provided and the source in which it was located. This will therefore indicate the version of the speech you have used in your work.
  • When entering the source in which the speech was located you do not need to repeat elements already entered for the speech elements, for example the year.

Surname of speaker, initial/s. (Year of speech) ‘Title of speech.’ Location Delivered, Date Delivered. [Format] In Source in which speech was located.


Examples


Hancock, M. (2018) ‘Leadership within the NHS.’ Leaders in healthcare conference, 15th November. [Transcript] In Department of Health and Social Care. Speech: leadership within the NHS. [Online] [Accessed on 23rd April 2020] https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/leadership-within-thenhs
Thunberg, G. (2019) ‘You did not act in time.’ Houses of Parliament, 23rd April. [Transcript] In The Guardian. ‘‘You did not act in time': Greta Thunberg's full speech to MPs.’ The Guardian. [Online] 23th April. [Accessed on 25th April 2019]
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/apr/23/greta-thunberg-full-speech-to-mps-youdid-not-act-in-time
Thunberg, G. (2019) ‘You did not act in time.’ Houses of Parliament, 23rd April. [Online video] In WWF UK. Greta Thunberg full speech to UK Parliament: climate strikes. [Online video] [Accessed on 21st February 2020] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rYNM4rsnNFM


Standards


Citing Standards


When citing standards by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown previously.


Referencing print Standards


When referencing a Standard, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Name of authorising organisation. (Year of Publication) Identifying letters and numbers and full title of Standard (in italics). Place of publication: Publisher.


Example


British Standards Institution. (2008) BS 9999:2008 Code of practice for fire safety in the design, management and use of buildings. Milton Keynes: BSI.


Referencing online Standards


Name of authorising organisation. (Year of Publication) Identifying letters and numbers and full title of Standard (in italics). Place of publication: Publisher. [Online] [Date accessed] URL


Example


British Standards Institution. (2008) BS 9999:2008 Code of practice for fire safety in the design, management and use of buildings. London: BSI. [Online] [Accessed on August 11th 2015] https://bsol-bsigroup-com.ezproxy.mmu.ac.uk/


Statutory Instruments


Citing Statutory Instruments


When citing Statutory Instruments in the main text of an assignment you must write in full, the short title of the SI and the year.
PLEASE NOTE: Unlike for other citation formats the year of publication does not need to be placed in brackets as this forms part of the title of the Statutory Instrument (with exception of direct quotes, see below).
Short title of the SI and the Year


Example


According to the 2014 Food Information Regulations, there are….


Direct quotes


When citing a direct quote from a Statutory Instrument, write the full short title of the SI and the year, followed by the page number written in brackets.


Example


The Food Regulations 2014 (2014:28) amends aspects of The Food Labelling Regulations 1996 by clarifying the description alcohol-free. Labelling must now indicate, ‘its maximum alcoholic strength and the symbol % vol.’ or, ‘in an appropriate case, an indication that it contains no
alcohol’.


Referencing Statutory Instruments


When referencing a Statutory Instrument, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
PLEASE NOTE: Unlike for other reference types the year of publication does not need to be placed in brackets as this forms part of the title of the Act (with exception of direct quotes, see below).
Short title of the SI and Year. (SI number) Place of publication: Publisher.


Example


The Food Information Regulations 2014. (SI 1855) Norwich: TSO.


Systematic reviews – Cochrane

 

Citing systematic reviews


When citing systematic reviews by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown previously.


Referencing systematic reviews


When referencing systematic reviews, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of review) ‘Title of review.’ Title of database (in italics), issue number:article number, first and last page numbers of review article. [Online] [Date accessed] URL


Example


Michelessi, M and Lindsley, K. (2016) ‘Peripheral iridotomy for pigmentary glaucoma.’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2:CD005644, pp. 1-33. [Online] [Accessed on 7th April 2016] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezproxy.mmu.ac.uk/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD005655.pub2/pdf


Television and Radio broadcasts


Citing television and radio broadcasts


Sometimes when citing from a television or radio broadcast you are not citing the creator of the broadcast. Instead, you may be citing someone else speaking in the broadcast. In this instance you  need to present your citation differently, including introducing the ‘speaker/s’ name in your writing. Please refer to the FAQ on the online version of this guide ‘Citing someone who is not the author of the source’ for further instruction. When citing from a television or radio broadcast, about the content of the broadcast (rather than what someone has said, such as a character in the broadcast) you should use the following format: You must state the title and year when citing information taken from a broadcast. This can be either the title of the episode or the title of the programme, whichever is listed first in the reference. If the title of the broadcast is long, you need to use the full title the first time you refer to it in your assignment. However, the title can be abbreviated from then on, as in the first example below.


Examples


Hillsborough – how they buried the truth (Hillsborough, 2013) addressed the issue of…
Britain on Film (2013) examines…


Direct quotes


To quote directly you need to include the time at which the words were spoken in the television or radio broadcast.


Example


‘the glamorous world of fashion..’ (Britain on Film, 2013:8mins 22)


Referencing television and radio broadcasts


When referencing a television or radio broadcast, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
‘Title of episode.’ (if applicable) Title of series/programme. (Year) Medium, either [Television] or [Radio] Television or radio channel, time and date of broadcast.
For a film that has been broadcast on television, the Director of the film must also be included in the reference: (as in the third example below)
Title of film. (Year of production) Director. [Television] Television channel, time and date of broadcast. 


Examples


‘Hillsborough – how they buried the truth.’ Panorama. (2013) [Television] BBC1, 21.00 20th May 2013.
‘Mark Kermode reviews The Great Gatsby.’ Kermode and Mayo’s Film Review. (2013) [Radio] UK: BBC R5live, 14:00 17th May 2013.
Slumdog Millionaire. (2008) Directed by D. Boyle. and L. Tandan. [Television] Channel 4, 21:25 4th December 2010.

‘Undercover: hate on the doorstep.’ Panorama. (2009) [Television] BBC News 24, 20:30 25th October 2009.


Referencing television and radio broadcasts accessed online


When referencing a television or radio broadcast accessed online, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
For television or radio broadcasts accessed online, state the medium as [Online] and also state the online provider and the date it was accessed:
‘Title of episode.’ (if applicable) Title of series/programme. (Year of production) [Online] Television or radio channel, time and date of broadcast. Available through (online provider). [Date accessed]


Example


Britain on Film. (2013) [Online] BBC Four, 20.00 6th August 2013. Available through Box of Broadcasts. [Accessed 1st September 2013]

‘Undercover: hate on the doorstep.’ Panorama. (2009) [Online] BBC News 24, 20:30 25th October 2009. Available through Box of Broadcasts. [Accessed on 30th June 2020]

 

Translated source


Citing a translated source


When citing a translated book by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be
presented as shown previously.


Referencing a translated book


When referencing a translated book, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication of original work) Title of book (in italics). Translated by Initial/s. Surname of translator, year of translated publication. Place of publication: Publisher.


Example


Siohan, R. (1959) Stravinsky. Translated by E. W. White, 1965. London: Calder and Boyars Ltd.


Referencing a translated book with an editor


When referencing a translated book that has an editor, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication of original work) Title of book (in italics). Translated by Initial/s. Surname of translator, year of translated publication. Surname of editor/s, initial./s. (ed/s.) (Year if different to translated year) Place of publication: Publisher.


Example


Vygotsky, L. S. (1934) Thought and language. Translated by E. Hanfmann and G. Vakar, 1962. Kozulin, A. (ed.) (2012) Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.


Referencing a translated book with introduction/section written by another author


When referencing a translated book with an introduction/section written by another author, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Surname of author/s who wrote introduction, initial/s. (Year of publication) 'Title of Introduction/section.' In (in italics) Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication of original work) Title of book (in italics). Translated by Initial/s. Surname of translator, year of translated publication. Place of publication: Publisher.


Example


Thurman, J. (2010) ‘Introduction.’ In Beauvoir, S. de. (1949) The second sex. Translated by C. Borde and S. Malovany-Chevallier, 2010. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, pp. ix-xvi.


Referencing translated journal articles


When referencing a translated journal article, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of journal article.’ Translated by Initial/s. Surname of translator, year of translated publication. Title of journal (in italics), Volume number(Issue number) first and last page numbers of whole journal article.


Example


Bourdieu, P. (1988) ‘Vive la crise!: for heterodoxy in social science.’ Translated by L. J. D. Wacquant, 1987. Theory and Society, 17(5) pp. 773-787.


UN documents


Citing UN documents


When citing UN documents by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown previously. UN documents can include statements, resolutions, treaties (also known as agreements, conventions and protocols). Follow the format below, including the appropriate elements where available.


Referencing print UN documents


When referencing print UN documents, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Name of UN department/assembly/council. (Year) Title of document (in italics). Full date adopted/signed (if applicable), reference/resolution number (if applicable).


Example


UN General Assembly. (1948) The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 10th December 1948, A/RES/217(III).


Referencing online UN documents


When referencing online UN documents, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Name of UN department/assembly/council. (Year) Title of document (in italics). Full date adopted/signed (if applicable), reference/resolution number (if applicable). [Online] [Access date] URL


Example


UN General Assembly. (1989) Convention on the Rights of the Child. 20th November 1989, RES/44/25. [Online] [Accessed on 2nd February 2017] http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/ProfessionalInterest/crc.pdf


Webpages (including blogs and social media sites)


Citing webpages (including blogs and social media sites)


When citing websites by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown previously.
Please note that if the webpage has no date you use the wording ‘no date’, where you would usually write the year, to indicate this.


Referencing webpages (including blogs and social media sites)


Key points:

  • If there is no author given use the organisation’s name instead. If you have stated the name of the organisation in place of the author, you do not need to state it again in the reference.
  • If there is no publication date state the words: no date in place of the year.
  • This format is used for all webpages including pages from blogs and social media sites.

The date (Day and Month) is required for blogs and social media posts, as shown in second and third example below.
Taking the above into account, when referencing a webpage, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:


Webpage with author


Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) Title of page (in italics). Date (Day and Month) the information was posted (if  applicable/available). Name of organisation. [Online] [Date accessed] URL


Examples


Kerr, N. (2005) Happy slapping. Kidscape. [Online] [Accessed on 10th November 2011] http://www.kidscape.org.uk/press/pressdetail.asp?PressID=7
Lewis, D. (2013) 5 live investigates: business property tax avoidance costs taxpayers millions. 13th September. The BBC Radio 5 live blog. [Online] [Accessed on 16th September 2013] http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/5live/posts/5-live-Investigates-Business-tax-avoidance-coststaxpayers-millions


Webpage with no author


Name of organisation. (Year of publication) Title of page (in italics). Date (Day and Month) the information was posted (if applicable/available). [Online] [Date accessed] URL


Examples


BBC News England @BBCEngland. (2013) Library book returned 59 years late. 4th September. BBC News. [Online] [Accessed on 6th September 2013] https://twitter.com/BBCEngland
BBC. (2009) Teenage obesity link to future MS. [Online] [Accessed on 13th January 2010] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/8342585.stm


Working papers


Citing working papers


When citing working papers by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown previously.


Referencing print working papers


When referencing working papers in print, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) Title of paper (in italics). Organisation/Department name working paper number. Place of publication: Publisher.


Example


Gilpin, N., Henty, S., Lemos, M., Portes, J. and Bullen, C. (2006) The impact of free movement of workers from Central and Eastern Europe on the UK labour market. Department for Work and  Pensions Working Paper no. 29. Norwich: HMSO.


Referencing online working papers


When referencing online working papers, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) Title of paper (in italics). Organisation/Department name working paper number. Place of publication: Publisher. [Online] [Date accessed] URL


Example


Gilpin, N., Henty, S., Lemos, M., Portes, J. and Bullen, C. (2006) The impact of free movement of workers from Central and Eastern Europe on the UK labour market. Department for Work and Pensions Working Paper no. 29. Norwich: HMSO. [Online] [Accessed on 3rd March 2016]
http://is.muni.cz/el/1456/jaro2006/PETPPZ/um/1293746/the_impact_of_free_movement_of_wo rkers_from_CEEC_on_UK_labou_market.pdf


Works of art


Citing works of art


To cite a work of art in your assignment you may include the title of the work and as well as the artist’s name and date of creation if these are important to the point you are making. Include the abbreviation c. if this is how the date is given in an exhibition catalogue or other source. This stands for “circa” and is used when the exact date of creation is not known by art historians. The artist’s surname/s and the year of production.


Example


Tanguy is thought to have been inspired as an artist by Portrait of Apollinaire as a Premonition (de Chirico, c.1914).


Referencing works of art


When referencing works of art, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Artist’s surname/s, initial/s. (Year of production) Title (in italics). Medium, size, location of exhibition.


Example


de Chirico, G. (c.1914) Portrait of Apollinaire as a Premonition. Oil on canvas, 81.5 x 65cm, National Museum of Modern Art, Pompidou Centre, Paris.


Original work of art showing in a temporary exhibition

Citing a work of art showing in a temporary exhibition


When citing works of art, the information should be presented as shown below:
The artist’s surname/s and the year of production.


Example


On entering the gallery the viewer is confronted with this piece (Parker, 2007).


Referencing a work of art showing in a temporary exhibition


When referencing original works of art that are showing in a temporary exhibition, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Artist’s surname/s, initial/s. (Year of production) Title (in italics). Medium, Size (if given), at: Location of exhibition. Dates of exhibition.


Example


Parker, C. (2007) Bullet Drawing. Lead from a bullet drawn into wire, at: Whitechapel Laboratory, Whitechapel Art Gallery. 13th February–30th March 2008.


Art exhibition

Citing an art exhibition


To cite and reference a whole exhibition there needs to be attribution to the artist or curator (if different pieces). When citing a whole art exhibition the information should be presented as shown below:
Note: If a curator's name is not evident, use the exhibition title in place of artist or curator.

The artist’s/curator surname/s and the year of production.


Example


The different individual pieces complimented one another to bring together a fuller understanding of warfare, human life and the environment (Carden-Coyne, 2014).


Referencing an art exhibition


When referencing a whole art exhibition you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Note: If a curator's name is not evident, use the exhibition title in italics in place of artist /curator. Artist/curator surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of exhibition) Title of exhibition (in italics). Location of exhibition. Dates of exhibition.


Example


Carden-Coyne, A. (2014) The sensory war 1914-2014. Exhibition at the Manchester Art Gallery, Manchester. 11th October 2014 to 22nd February 2015.


Work of art reproduced in another source

Citing a work of art reproduced in another source


When citing a work of art reproduced in another source, the information should be presented as shown below:
The artist, the year the work was produced, the author and date of the source and the page number (or, online in place of the page number for online sources without page numbers, as in the second example below).


Examples


Klee (1929) in Partsch (2000:47) can be seen to have used…
(Hicks, 1862 in Art UK, no date:online)


Referencing a work of art reproduced in a book


When referencing a reproduction in a book, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Artist’s surname/s, initial/s. (Year of production) ‘Title of work.’ Medium, Size (if given). In: Author/Editor. (Year of publication) Title of book (in italics). Edition if applicable., Page number. Place of publication: Publisher.


Example


Klee, P. (1929) ‘Old Man Calculating.’ Etching on copper, 29.9x23.7cm. In: Partsch, S. (2000) Klee. p.47. Koln: Taschen.


Referencing a work of art reproduced on a webpage


When referencing a reproduction on a webpage, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Artist’s surname/s, initial/s. (Year of production) ‘Title of work.’ Medium, Size (if given). In: Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. or, organisation name. (Year of publication) Title of webpage (in italics). [Online] [Access date] URL


Example


Hicks, G. E. (1862) ‘Changing homes.’ Oil on Canvas, 89 x 150 cm. In: Art UK. (no date) Artworks: changing homes (in italics). [Online] [Accessed on 27th March 2017] https://www.artuk.org/discover/artworks/changing-homes-133025

MMU Harvard referencing quick guide

MMU Harvard Referencing Quick Guide


This is intended to be a quick guide to MMU Harvard referencing.
Please consult the full MMU Harvard referencing online guide
(https://libguides.mmu.ac.uk/refguide/mmuharvard) for further instruction, including:


Terminology


Citation


Citations are in-text indicators of the source of information. All citations should have a corresponding entry in your
reference list.


Reference list


The full details of all the sources you have cited in your work, listed at the end of your assignment, in alphabetical
order.


Formatting citations


For most sources, the only information you need when citing within the text of your work is the author’s
surname and the year of publication.

  • In the absence of an author’s name use the name of the organisation instead.
  • If there is no date state (no date) in place of the year
  • Provide the page number when using a direct quote. It may also be useful to include a page number for a paraphrase, to direct the reader to a particular part of the source you are referring to

Examples

 

Citation examples
Type of citation Example citation
A source with one author (Cottrell, 2015)
A source with two authors (Pritchard and Burton, 2018)
A source with three or more authors (Bornstein et al., 2014)
Using a direct quote (Cottrell, 2015:84)
Organisation as author (Department for Education, 2018)

 


Presenting citations


If you do not use the author's name in your writing, the author and year are placed in brackets at the end of the
statement, as follows:
Recording personal achievements can be used as a reflective tool and can help an individual identify their own
skills and expertise (Cottrell, 2015).
If you are using the author's name in your writing, you would add the year in brackets following the surname, as
follows:
Cottrell (2015) suggests that recording personal achievements can be used as a reflective tool and can help an
individual identify their own skills and expertise.


Formatting references

Examples of referencing format
Format Reference elements Example
Book Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of
publication) Title of book (in italics). Edition if
applicable., Place of publication: Publisher.
Bornstein, M. H., Arterberry, M. E. and Lamb,
M. E. (2014) Development in infancy: a
contemporary introduction
. 5th ed., New
York: Psychology Press.
Journal article Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of
publication) ‘Title of journal article.’ Title of
Journal
(in italics), Volume number(Issue
number) first and last page numbers of whole
journal article.
Pritchard, M. P. and Burton, R. (2018) ‘Ethical
failures in sport business: directions for
research.’ Sport Marketing Quarterly, 23(2)
pp. 86-99.
Webpage Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of
publication) Title of page (in italics). Name of
organisation if applicable. [Online] [Date
accessed] URL
Rohrer, F. (2013) The unwinnable game. BBC.
[Online] [Accessed on 17
th July 2018]
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine25032298


For the full A-Z list of reference types see https://libguides.mmu.ac.uk/refguide/mmuharvard


Need more MMU Harvard Referencing help?


Workshops – are run regularly throughout the year and upcoming workshops are advertised on the Library’s
homepage https://libguides.mmu.ac.uk/workshops
Email your enquiry to Library@mmu.ac.uk
EndNote - software to help organise your references https://libguides.mmu.ac.uk/endnote

Disclaimer

This MMU Harvard referencing guide is designed to be used specifically by undergraduate students studying at Manchester Metropolitan University.  However, all students are advised to check with their programme team as to which style of referencing is required as a few departments do not use the Harvard system.

Postgraduate students and those who are submitting material for publication should adhere strictly to guidelines or specifications provided by their supervisor or publishers of the relevant journal.

Acknowledgements

In constructing this guide, a number of handbooks from various institutions were consulted.  Permission to use information from these institutes has been granted.  The authors would like to thank and acknowledge the following institutes:

David Rudd – University of Bolton

Geoffrey Ward – University of Essex

Information Literacy Team – University of Leeds

Learning and Information Services (LIS) – University of Wolverhampton

Skills for Learning – Leeds Metropolitan University

Sue Taylor – University of Gloucestershire 

Virginia Bell – Queen Margaret University

Academic Services – Bournemouth University

The authors would also like to thank members of staff from the Institute of Education and the Faculty of Health, Psychology and Social Care for their advice and recommendations.

Special thanks to Janet Rooney for the design of the PDF referencing guide.