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MMU Harvard

Manchester Metropolitan University has a standard version of the Harvard referencing style called MMU Harvard.

The MMU Harvard style requires you to reference each type of information source (eg book, article, webpage etc) in a standard way.

The 'MMU Harvard reference types A-Z' section below provides examples of how to cite and reference a wide range of information source types.

Please also consult the Citations section for instruction on how to present citations.

Our referencing FAQs provide further instruction on referencing and how to identify sources.

If you are using a referencing management software other than Endnote to help with formatting your references, please ensure you check your references against the examples provided in the MMU Harvard guide.

You can also download the full MMU Harvard Referencing Guide as a PDF:

The quick guide provides instruction on citing and how to reference a few key sources.

MMU Harvard reference types A-Z


If you do not find the answer you need in the sections below or require help with identifying the source to reference, our referencing FAQs may provide some guidance.

Select a heading below:


Acts of parliament

Annual reports

App content


Archive material



Briefing papers

Business cases

Case Law

Chapter in an edited book

Company data/reports from company financial databases

Company reports

Computer/video games

Conference papers (published and unpublished) and conference proceedings

Dictionary definition

Discussion papers


eBook readers

EU documents/legislation

Excel file

Exhibition catalogues


Foreign language sources

General reports

Government command papers

Guest presentation

Illustrations: e.g. images, pictures, diagrams, graphs, charts or tables

Journal articles

Journals: special issue


Lecture notes

Magazine articles

Market reports/Company and Industry profiles/Country reports

Newspaper articles

Online audio

Online images

Online PDF documents

Online videos

Parliamentary debates (Hansard)

Parliamentary Papers - online





Preprint articles

Press release

Religious texts

Secondary sources



Sources with no author



Statutory Instruments

Systematic review - Cochrane

Translated source

TV and radio broadcasts

UN documents

Webpage (including blogs and social media sites)

Working papers

Works of art



This MMU Harvard referencing guide is designed to be used specifically by undergraduate students studying at Manchester Metropolitan University.  However, all students are advised to check with their programme team as to which style of referencing is required as a few departments do not use the Harvard system.

Postgraduate students and those who are submitting material for publication should adhere strictly to guidelines or specifications provided by their supervisor or publishers of the relevant journal.


In constructing this guide, a number of handbooks from various institutions were consulted.  Permission to use information from these institutes has been granted.  The authors would like to thank and acknowledge the following institutes:

David Rudd – University of Bolton

Geoffrey Ward – University of Essex

Information Literacy Team – University of Leeds

Learning and Information Services (LIS) – University of Wolverhampton

Skills for Learning – Leeds Metropolitan University

Sue Taylor – University of Gloucestershire 

Virginia Bell – Queen Margaret University

Academic Services – Bournemouth University

The authors would also like to thank members of staff from the Institute of Education and the Faculty of Health, Psychology and Social Care for their advice and recommendations.

Special thanks to Janet Rooney for the design of the PDF referencing guide.