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MHRA referencing

MHRA style

The MHRA style of referencing is used in the departments of History and Philosophy, and by English PhD students.

MHRA stands for Modern Research Humanities Association and the departments above use the footnote and bibliography version of MHRA. 

The MMU MHRA reference types A-Z section below provides examples of how to cite and reference a wide range of information source types.

Referencing in the MHRA Footnotes style is a three-part process:

  • Footnote number: this is a numerical reference in the text written in superscript, referring to a footnote at the bottom of the page. A footnote is used to show the source of material in the text, allowing the reader to locate the original source of the information. A footnote would be used after a quotation, paraphrased material, an idea taken from another author, or another work referred to in your text.
  • Footnote: this is given at the bottom of the page in which the footnote number appears, it consists of the bibliographic details of the source of the material. A footnote can also be used to provide a small amount of text for clarification of specific points, although this should be used with sparingly with caution. It is only necessary to reference the full bibliographic details of the source the first time a source is referenced. After the first citation, a short form version of the reference can be used for subsequent references to the same work.
  • Bibliography: this must be appended at the end of the work, listing all the texts consulted in the research process and those cited within the body of the work. This should be set out in alphabetical order by author's surname, using the same standard conventions as the footnotes, but without page number references. 

The full MHRA Style Guide is available online and in print

MMU MHRA reference types A-Z


If you do not find the answer you need in the sections below or require help with identifying the source to reference, the official MHRA Style Guide may provide some guidance; alternative email the Manchester Metropolitan University Library MHRA Referencing support team at


Select a heading below:

Acts of parliament

App content


Archive material



Books / eBooks

Chapter in an edited book

Computer / video games

Dictionary definitions

Dissertations / theses

eBook readers


Images - online

Journal articles

Magazine articles

Newspaper articles

Online videos




Social media



TV and radio broadcasts

Video Database (eg. Box of Broadcasts, Kanopy)

Video Streaming Service (eg. Netflix, iPlayer)



In constructing this guide, a number of handbooks from various institutions were consulted.  Permission to use information from these institutes has been granted.  The authors would like to thank and acknowledge the following institutes:

The University of Kent Library

The University of Sheffield Library

The University of Swansea Library

The authors would also like to thank members of staff from the Department of History, Politics & Philosophy, in particular Jonathan Spangler, for their advice and recommendations.

Why reference?

The purpose of referencing is to enable others to find the information that you have used in your assignment. 

You MUST cite and reference all the information that you have used in the main text of your assignment.  It is important to acknowledge the work of others if you have referred to it in your assignments; if you do not, you will be accused of plagiarism.


Plagiarism is a failure to acknowledge another person's work or idea and claiming this idea as your own. This is a serious offence.

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