Identifying / stating who is the owner of the work, and its source.
Making a copy / version of a work which is designed to be easier to use for people with disabilities. For example alternative forms of a book (audio, large print, text to speech reader) produced for a visually impaired or dyslexic person.
When someone breaks or fails to observe a (copyright) law, agreement, or code of conduct.
The CDPA is the main Act of Parliament which governs UK copyright law. Small changes have been introduced over the years, the most recent and significant copyright exceptions were made on June 1st 2014.
Working within the rules or law of copyright by not copying, adapting or making publicly available (in any way) someone else's work without first gaining permission from the relevant person or organisation.
This is an intellectual property right which gives protection to the owner of the rights to an original work. This means that individuals who want to reproduce the original work of others (or adapt it or make it publicly available in any way) may need to seek permission to do so. It's a legal right created by the law of a country, that grants the owner of the copyright in an original work the right to control the work's use and distribution, usually for a limited time, with the intention of enabling the copyright owner (e.g. the photographer, author, artist) to receive compensation for their intellectual effort.
Terms such as copyrighting, copywritten, copywrite or copywright are incorrect usuges - see the UK Copyright Service's Common Misspellings and Misconceptions.
The symbol that is used to denote copyright is a 'c' in a circle, or may be a 'p' in a circle for sound recordings. Although it is not necessary to include the copyright symbol in order for a work to benefit from copyright protection, doing so is a useful way of asserting the existence of copyright in a work.
Creative Commons is a nonprofit organization that works to increase the amount of creativity (cultural, educational, and scientific content) available in “the commons” — the body of work that is available to the public for free and legal sharing, use, repurposing, and remixing. CC provide free, easy-to-use licences for everyone from individual creators to companies and institutions a way to pre-clear usage rights to creative work they own the copyright to. CC licences let people easily change their copyright terms from the default of “all rights reserved” to “some rights reserved.” CC licences are not an alternative to copyright, they apply on top of copyright, so owners can modify their copyright terms to best suit their needs. [See: What is Creative Commons?]
A derivative work is a work that is based on (derived from) another work; e.g. a painting based on a photograph, a collage, a musical work based on an existing piece or samples, a screenplay based on a book. Unless you're the owner of the copyright, permission will have to be sought from the owner (which, if deceased, could be the owner's living relatives) before a derivative work can be made, but there are exceptions to this rule including use within an educational establishment for the purpose of instruction and examination.
Digitisation is the process of converting (analogue) information into a digital format, this could be text or images. The Library offers a Digitisation Service which offers to digitise (scan) book chapters or journal articles for specific teaching units so that the digitised copy may then be linked to from resource (reading) lists and/or Moodle.
Economic rights give the rights holder the chance to make a financial profit from the use made of their works. An author (or rights holder) also has the right to authorize the reproduction of the work in any form and they’re able to take action to claim compensation for, and prevent, infringing acts. Economic rights are a property right so can be transferred by the author to others; they are also limited by time.
In order to record television broadcasts, Manchester Metropolitan University requires a licence from the Educational Recording Agency. All Universities in the UK are licensed directly by ERA. The ERA Licence allows Manchester Metropolitan University to copy broadcast material to use as part of a lesson. It also allows the use of certain on-demand services such as BBC iPlayer, 4 on Demand, 5 on Demand and Clic. Holding an ERA licence means that an institution can not only copy but also retain broadcast material. It allows us to build up a library of valuable resources to be used when teaching (e.g. the legacy Manchester Metropolitan University in-house broadcast recording archive http://www.tv.mmu.ac.uk/index.php) and covers our use of services such as BoB (Box of Broadcasts).
Manchester Metropolitan University currently holds an ERA+ Licence. This also allows licensed ERA Recordings to be accessed by students and teachers online whilst on and off-campus.
Fair dealing under UK law is a doctrine which provides an exception to UK copyright law, in cases where the copyright infringement is for the purposes of non-commercial research or study, criticism or review, or for the reporting of current events. Although there is no strict definition of what fair dealing means, it has been interpreted by the courts on a number of occasions by looking at the economic impact of the use on the rights holder. Where the economic impact is not significant, the use may count as fair dealing.
The act of copying, distributing or adapting a work without permission.
Intellectual property is something unique that you physically create. An idea alone is not intellectual property. For example, an idea for a book doesn’t count, but the words you’ve written do. Copyright is one type of intellectual property right, see above. UK Government advice on IP
A licence grants official permission (from an authority such as the CLA) to own or use something, or do a particular thing (like copying), that would otherwise be disallowed. The licence holder will be required to carry out the activity under certain rules imposed by the authority.
Moral rights are meant to protect the reputation of the author with particular regard to the right to be attributed for the creation of a work, and the right to object to defamatory treatment.
The free, immediate, online availability of research articles, coupled with the right to use these articles fully in the digital environment.
A work in which copyright exists, but where the rights holder is either unknown or cannot be located.
Works in the public domain are those whose intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are otherwise inapplicable.
A person or organisation that owns the copyright of a work. This may be the original author, their relatives if deceased or, if they have assigned their copyright, it may be a publisher or other commercial entity purely associated with exploitation of the work.
The composition of printed material from movable type. Copyright in the typographical arrangement of a published edition expires 25 years from the end of the year in which the edition was first published.