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Referencing

Manchester School of Art

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Students in the Manchester School of Art should follow the MMU Harvard style for the references list but be asked to use a numeric sequence for some assignments, according to the Numeric citation and referencing guide for Manchester School of Art students.

Check with your tutor which style of referencing to use

Tutors may specify whether a Harvard or Numeric citation method is preferred for an assignment.

It would be advisable to check which method to use well before the submission deadline.

School of Art Numeric Referencing Guide 2nd edition

Numeric Citation & Referencing for the School of Art 2nd edition


Hetal Patel, Lecturer in conjunction with Emily Shields, Padma Inala & Nicola Beck, Subject Librarians
September 2013
Adapted by Helen Bowman, Student Support Officer and Margaret Kendall, Subject Librarian.
May 2014


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


In constructing this guide, a number of handbooks from various institutions were consulted. Permission to use information from these institutes has been granted. The authors would like to thank and acknowledge the following institutes:
David Rudd – University of Bolton
Geoffrey Ward – University of Essex
Information Literacy Team – University of Leeds
Learning and Information Services (LIS) – University of Wolverhampton
Skills for Learning – Leeds Metropolitan University
Sue Taylor – University of Gloucestershire
Virginia Bell – Queen Margaret University
Academic Services – Bournemouth University
The authors would also like to thank members of staff from the Institute of Education and the Faculty of Health, Psychology and Social Care for their advice and recommendations. Special thanks to Janet Rooney for the design of this handbook.


DISCLAIMER


This Numeric citation and referencing handbook is designed to be used specifically by undergraduate students studying Art & Design at Manchester Metropolitan University. However, all students are advised to check with their programme team as to which style of citation is required (Harvard or Numeric) as some tutors may have a preference. Postgraduate students and those who are submitting material for publication should adhere strictly to guidelines or specifications provided by their supervisor or publishers of the relevant journal.

 

CONTENTS

Table of contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
DISCLAIMER
WHY SHOULD I REFERENCE? PLAGIARISM
WHAT ARE CITATIONS, REFERENCES AND A BIBLIOGRAPHY? CITATION
REFERENCES
BIBLIOGRAPHY
REFERENCING LIST FORMAT
QUOTES GENERAL RULES WHEN USING QUOTES
LENGTH OF QUOTES
CITATIONS: GENERAL RULES Multiple authors
DIRECT QUOTES: GENERAL RULES
DIRECT QUOTES: GENERAL RULES
CITING & REFERENCING SPECIFIC SOURCES
BOOKS GENERAL RULES
CITING BOOKS
REFERENCING BOOKS
CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK CITING A CHAPTER FROM AN EDITED BOOK
REFERENCING A CHAPTER FROM AN EDITED BOOK
JOURNAL ARTICLES  CITING JOURNAL ARTICLES 
REFERENCING JOURNAL ARTICLES 
INTERNET SOURCES: WEBPAGES (INCLUDING BLOGS AND SOCIAL MEDIA SITES)  CITING WEBPAGES (INCLUDING BLOGS AND SOCIAL MEDIA SITES) 
REFERENCING WEBPAGES (INCLUDING BLOGS AND SOCIAL MEDIA SITES)
INTERNET SOURCES: PDF DOCUMENTS  CITING PDF DOCUMENTS 
REFERENCING PDF DOCUMENTS 
SECONDARY SOURCES  CITING SECONDARY SOURCES 
REFERENCING SECONDARY SOURCES
NEWSPAPERS CITING A NEWSPAPER ARTICLE
REFERENCING PRINT COPIES OF NEWSPAPER ARTICLES 
REFERENCING ONLINE NEWSPAPER ARTICLES 
DISSERTATIONS  CITING DISSERTATIONS 
REFERENCING DISSERTATIONS
EBOOK READERS 
APPS 
APP CONTENT  CITING APP CONTENT 
REFERENCING APP CONTENT 
FILMS/DVDS/VIDEOS  CITING FILMS/DVDS/VIDEOS 
REFERENCING FILMS
REFERENCING DVDS/VIDEOS 
CITING EXTRA FEATURES ON DVDS/VIDEOS: FILM COMMENTARIES
REFERENCING EXTRA FEATURES ON DVDS/VIDEOS: FILM COMMENTARIES 
CITING EXTRA FEATURES ON DVDS/VIDEOS: INTERVIEWS WITH FILM DIRECTOR/S 
REFERENCING EXTRA FEATURES ON DVDS/VIDEOS: INTERVIEWS WITH FILM DIRECTOR/S 
CITING EXTRA FEATURES ON DVDS/VIDEOS: DOCUMENTARY 
REFERENCING EXTRA FEATURES ON DVDS/VIDEOS: DOCUMENTARY
CITING FILMS ACCESSED ONLINE
REFERENCING FILMS ACCESSED ONLINE
TELEVISION AND RADIO BROADCASTS  CITING TELEVISION AND RADIO BROADCASTS 
REFERENCING TELEVISION AND RADIO BROADCASTS 
REFERENCING TELEVISION AND RADIO BROADCASTS ACCESSED ONLINE
ONLINE VIDEOS  CITING ONLINE VIDEOS
REFERENCING ONLINE VIDEOS
ONLINE IMAGES OR PHOTOS  CITING ONLINE IMAGES OR PHOTOS 
REFERENCING ONLINE IMAGES OR PHOTOS 
LECTURE NOTES  CITING LECTURE NOTES
REFERENCING LECTURE NOTES
GUEST PRESENTATIONS  CITING A GUEST PRESENTATION 
REFERENCING GUEST PRESENTATIONS
CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS AND CONFERENCE PAPERS (PUBLISHED AND UNPUBLISHED) CITING CONFERENCE PAPERS (PUBLISHED OR UNPUBLISHED) 
REFERENCING CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS 
REFERENCING PUBLISHED CONFERENCE PAPERS 
REFERENCING AN UNPUBLISHED CONFERENCE PAPER
GOVERNMENT COMMAND PAPERS  CITING COMMAND PAPERS
REFERENCING COMMAND PAPERS
ACTS OF PARLIAMENT CITING ACTS OF PARLIAMENT
REFERENCING AN ACT OF PARLIAMENT 
Acts introduced prior to 1963 
MARKET RESEARCH REPORTS  CITING MARKET RESEARCH REPORTS 
REFERENCING PRINT COPY MARKET RESEARCH REPORTS 
REFERENCING ONLINE MARKET RESEARCH REPORTS 
ANNUAL REPORTS  CITING ANNUAL REPORTS
REFERENCING PRINT COPY ANNUAL REPORTS
REFERENCING ONLINE ANNUAL REPORTS
REPORTS: OTHERS CITING GENERAL REPORTS
REFERENCING PRINT COPY GENERAL REPORTS
REFERENCING ONLINE GENERAL REPORTS
FOREIGN LANGUAGE SOURCES CITING FOREIGN LANGUAGE SOURCES
REFERENCING FOREIGN LANGUAGE SOURCES
RELIGIOUS TEXTS CITING RELIGIOUS TEXTS
REFERENCING RELIGIOUS TEXTS
LEAFLETS/POSTERS CITING LEAFLETS/POSTERS
REFERENCING LEAFLETS/POSTERS
WORKS OF ART CITING WORKS OF ART
REFERENCING WORKS OF ART
ORIGINAL WORK OF ART SHOWING IN A TEMPORARY EXHIBITION REFERENCING A WORK OF ART SHOWING IN A TEMPORARY EXHIBITION
REPRODUCTION IN A BOOK REFERENCING A REPRODUCTION IN A BOOK
PLAY REFERENCING A PLAY
SONGS CITING SONGS
REFERENCING SONGS FROM A SINGLE (A OR B SIDES) 
REFERENCING SONGS FROM AN ALBUM
REFERENCING AN ALBUM
PERSONAL COMMUNICATION CITING PERSONAL COMMUNICATION 
REFERENCING PERSONAL COMMUNICATION
SOURCES WITH NO AUTHOR REFERENCING SOURCES WITH NO AUTHOR

WHY SHOULD I REFERENCE?


The purpose of referencing is to enable others to find the information that you have used in your assignment. You MUST cite and reference all the sources of information that you have used in the main text of your assignment. It is important to acknowledge the work of others if you have referred to it in your assignments; if you do not, you will be accused of PLAGIARISM.

 
PLAGIARISM


Plagiarism is a failure to acknowledge another person’s work or idea and claiming this idea as your own. This is deemed as cheating/academic misconduct and is treated as a SERIOUS OFFENCE. See the ‘Assessment Regulations for Taught Programmes’ in the programme regulations section of your student handbook. You can find more information on avoiding plagiarism in the Skills Online module in your Moodle Student Support Area. 

 

WHAT ARE CITATIONS, REFERENCES AND A BIBLIOGRAPHY?

 
CITATION


Acknowledging other people’s work/ideas within your assignment or in the main body of your text is called ‘citing’. You will often come across citations when you are reading books or journals.
The Numeric system uses a running number within the text for each source you are citing, i.e. (1) is the first source that you mention, (2) is the second source and so on. You may use square or round brackets around the number in the text as above, or you may use superscript as in the rest of this document but, whichever way of presenting the numbers you choose, use the same way consistently throughout your assignment. MS Word will do this for you if you insert the numbers using the software using the References tab, Insert Footnote OR Insert Endnote (see REFERENCES below). If you cite the same source more than once in your essay use a new number each time.

 

REFERENCES


This is a list of sources that you have cited in the main text of your assignment. Using the numeric method there are two possible ways of listing your references. Use EITHER an endnote list (one list at the end of the document, OR footnotes (a list at the bottom of the page) CONSISTENTLY. These lists correspond to the numbers inserted in the text.


EXAMPLE


¹Nochlin, L. (1990) Realism. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
²Heartney, E., Posner, H. and Prinecenthal, N. (2007) After the revolution: women who transformed contemporary art. London: Prestel.
³Graham-Rowe, D. (2001) On developments in 3-D CAD and holographic design for use by automotive engineers and architects. Blueprint, 81, pp. 62-65.
⁴Perks, M. (2005) 3D or not 3D? Architects’ Journal, 221(10), pp. 40-41.


If you cite the same sources more than once in your essay, you do not need to give the full reference again. Instead, use the author’s surname and the number you used the first time you cited the source, with the page number if you have given a direct quotation.


EXAMPLE


⁵Nochlin, ref. 1, p. 157.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY


This is a list of sources that you have read but have not cited in the main text of your assignment. This list is also produced at the end of your assignment after the reference section; HOWEVER, you only need to produce a bibliography alongside a reference list if you have been asked to do so.

 

REFERENCING LIST FORMAT


If you have used the footnote method you should provide a full reference list at the end of the document as well as giving the references as footnotes at the bottom of each page. This list of references should be in ALPHABETICAL ORDER, using the correct format as detailed in this guide.
If you have two or more authors with the same name you must list them in alphabetical order according to the author’s initial/s:


EXAMPLE


Mullins, L. J. (2007) Management and organisational behaviour. 8th ed., Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall.
Mullins, R. (2007) ‘iPhone: why one little gadget matters so much.’ Network World, 24(50) p. 33.
If you have a single author, where the surname is the same but the publication year is different the sources should be listed in chronological order with the earliest publication first.


EXAMPLE


Cottrell, S. (2005) Critical thinking skills: developing effective analysis and argument. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Cottrell, S. (2008) The study skills handbook. 3rd ed., Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
If you have two or more sources where the author’s surname is the same, but one publication is written by a single author and the other is written by more than one author, the single authored publication will be listed first. This will be the case regardless of the author’s first name.


EXAMPLE


Jameson, R. (1994) ‘Making the connection.’ Housing, 30(1), pp. 45-46.
Jameson, K. and Kidd, P. (1974) Pre-school play. London: Studio Vista.


In the above example Jameson, R. comes before Jameson, K. This is because a joint publication is always placed after the single author of the same name.

 

QUOTES

 

GENERAL RULES WHEN USING QUOTES
  • When using quotes the wording that you have used in your assignment needs to be EXACTLY the same as the text from the source.
  • Single quotation marks must be used at the beginning and end of the quote so the reader knows where the quote begins and ends.
  • Quotes should not be altered into italics, underlined or emboldened unless you want to highlight/emphasise a specific word in the quote. If you do this cite the quote and add: (emphasis added) to show you have altered it.
  • If you do not use the whole sentence, make sure you use ellipses (…)to indicate which part of the sentence is missing; these may be at the start of the quote, the end of the quote, or in the middle if you have shortened the wording.
  • If you come across a mistake in a quote and do not want this mistake to be attributed to you, you can add the term [sic] next to the error.
  • If you want to insert words into a quote you can add square brackets [ ] around the additional text but remember the sentence must make grammatical sense. It is important to use square brackets and not round brackets around the extra text because this indicates that this is your addition and not the authors.
 
LENGTH OF QUOTES

 

LONG QUOTES

Quotes longer than 20 words should be indented and placed in a separate paragraph.
You DO NOT need to place quotation marks around the quote if it is classified as a long quote.
Instead of:
For an individual to manage their workload effectively, a plan can be devised to tackle daily, weekly and monthly commitments. Whitehead and Mason⁶ have argued ‘the fundamental rules of balancing commitments and responsibilities are to anticipate problems, communicate with others, plan thoroughly, implement proactively, evaluate effectively and amend accordingly. Make a list of the main problems that you think will arise in the course of your study and prioritise them with the most serious on top.’ Each aspect that has been mentioned will be addressed…
Write:
For an individual to manage their workload effectively, a plan can be devised to tackle daily, weekly and monthly commitments. Whitehead and Mason⁶ have argued:
The fundamental rules of balancing commitments and responsibilities are to anticipate problems, communicate with others, plan thoroughly, implement proactively, evaluate effectively and amend accordingly. Make a list of the main problems that you think will arise in the course of your study and prioritise them with the most serious on top.
Each aspect that has been mentioned will be addressed…


SHORT QUOTES

Quotes shorter than 20 words can be embedded into the text. You MUST put quotation marks around the text that you are inserting into your assignment. Remember, the sentence needs to make grammatical sense.
Instead of:
For an individual to manage their workload effectively, a plan can be devised to tackle daily, weekly and monthly commitments. Within this framework, individuals can identify issues that:
…arise in the course of your study and prioritise them with the most serious on top⁷.
By setting time aside and identifying possible events that may occur…
Write:
For an individual to manage their workload effectively, a plan can be devised to tackle daily, weekly and monthly commitments. Within this framework, individuals can identify issues that ‘…arise in the course of your study and prioritise them with the most serious on top’⁷. By setting time aside and identifying possible events that may occur…
The quote used in the above example does not start at the beginning of the original sentence. Thus, the ellipses ‘…’ have been used to illustrate that the quote is only part of the original sentence.

 

CITATIONS: GENERAL RULES


You usually give the author’s surname, either as part of a sentence when you are summarising or rewording an author’s words. Note the number moves in the examples below. Please also bear in mind:

  • If there is no author but there is an organisation’s name you use this instead.

For more complex citations, examples are provided with each specific source throughout the guide:


EXAMPLES

Two different ways of using a numeric reference when the author’s name is in the sentence
Nochlin⁸ has drawn attention to the implications for visual representation of myths concerning the timelessness of the Orient.
Nochlin has drawn attention to the implications for visual representation of myths concerning the timelessness of the Orient.⁸


MULTIPLE AUTHORS


Often, you will come across work that has been published by more than one author. Citing this information follows the same rules because you still need to include the authors’ surname in the sentence. However, the presentation of the authors’ surnames will be altered. Some publications may be authored by several people; it is not practical to include the names of all the authors in the main text of your assignment, so if there are three or more authors, state the first author’s surname only and follow this with ‘et al.’.


TWO AUTHORS:


Both authors’ surnames or two organisations’ names.


EXAMPLE


Lightbown and Spada⁹ believe that…


THREE OR MORE AUTHORS:


Surname of the first author only followed by et al.


EXAMPLE


It has been found by Burrows et al.¹⁰…


DIRECT QUOTES: GENERAL RULES


When citing a direct quote you need to add in the page number or use the word ‘online’ in the footnote or endnote if you’ve used an online source. For more complex quotes, examples are provided for each specific source throughout the guide:


DIRECT QUOTES WITH PAGE NUMBERS


When citing a direct quote from a book you also need the page number which is written after the year in the following format:


EXAMPLE


When critically evaluating other’s work it’s important to use ‘tact and a constructive approach…’¹¹.
In the footnote/endnote
¹¹Cottrell, S. (2005) Critical thinking skills: developing effective analysis and argument. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 97.


DIRECT QUOTES FROM ONLINE SOURCES


As many online sources have no page number when quoting directly you need to state that the information has been found online in the following way:


EXAMPLE


According to the Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (no date: online) pay-as-you go ensured that ‘…mobile phones are one of the most inclusive technologies’¹².
In the footnote/endnote
¹²Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform. (no date) Telecommunications – mobile communications.
[Online] [Accessed on 15th July 2008] http://www.berr.gov.uk/sectors/telecoms/telecomsmobile/page10031.html
For more information on how to present direct quotes please see p.7-9.


CITING & REFERENCING SPECIFIC SOURCES


BOOKS


IMPORTANT: Electronic books found online (not via ebook readers) will be referenced in the same manner as a print copy of a book. This is because an electronic book is just a scanned copy of the original print book. This means the information in both versions of the book is exactly the same.

 

GENERAL RULES

YEAR OF PUBLICATION AND REPRINTS


The year of publication, for a book, refers to the year the book was first published and not the reprint date. If you are presented with a list of years, you need to select the year the book was first published.


EXAMPLE


If presented with the following information: First published 1992, reprinted 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998 (twice), 1999, 2000, 2002
You would choose 1992 as the year of publication. The reason why you would not choose any of the other years, such as 2002, is because the information in the books that have been reprinted is the same as the information found in the book when it was first published.


REPRINTS OF OLD TEXT WITH NEW PUBLISHERS


If a book has been reprinted by a new publisher (and not the original publisher) then the date when it was reprinted with the new publisher needs to be recorded along with the original publication date. This is so that someone searching for the edition you have used can find it, but you are also being clear about the original date of the information.


EXAMPLE


Rogers, C. R. (1961, reprinted 2004) On becoming a person: a therapist's view of psychotherapy. London: Constable.

 

CITING BOOKS


When citing books by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown in the general rules section of this guide.

 

REFERENCING BOOKS


Key Points

  • If you have used et al. in referring to the authors you need to list all authors in your reference list(s).
  • You may find that the place of publication lists a number of locations from all over the world, in which case you need to select the first location because this would be the place the book was published.
  • If there is no edition listed leave this out; if the book is listed as 1st edition also leave this out.
  • When referencing an edited book, you should put the editor’s surname/s instead of the author’s. You indicate this by using (ed.) or (eds.) immediately after the surname/s and initial/s, as shown in the Hargie example below.

Taking the above into account, to reference a published book you need to include the following information in your endnote or footnote and referencing list:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (ed/s.) (Year of publication) Title of book (in italics). Edition if applicable., Place of publication: Publisher.


EXAMPLES


Association of Illustrators (2011) Images 35: best of British illustration 2011. London : Association of Illustrators
Burrows, A., Parsons, A., Price, G. and Pilling G. (2009) Chemistry³: Introducing inorganic, organic and physical chemistry. Oxford : Oxford University Press
Lightbown, P. and Spada, N. (1993) How languages are learned. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cottrell, S. (2011) Critical thinking skills: developing effective analysis and argument. 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Hargie, O. (ed.) (2006) The handbook of communication skills. 3rd ed., London: Routledge.

 

CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK


IMPORTANT: The following rules DO NOT apply if you are referencing information in a chapter from a book entirely written by the same author/s. These rules only apply when the book is edited and the chapters are written by different authors.


CITING A CHAPTER FROM AN EDITED BOOK


When citing chapters from an edited book by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown in the general rules section of this guide. NB: please see below for information on which author to cite.
Please bear in mind that you only need to cite the author of the chapter whose idea you have used in your assignment. For instance, if you have read a chapter by David Dickson in a book edited by Owen Hargie you use Dickson’s name in the citation.
The book entitled ‘The handbook of communication skills’ is edited by Owen Hargie. The book was published in 2006 and there are a number of different chapters that are authored by other people. You do not need to mention, in the main body of your assignment, that the chapter was found in Hargie’s book because this is not relevant for the citation. However, this information will be provided in the reference list so that anyone can locate the correct source.


ONE OR TWO AUTHORS


Surname/s of chapter author.


EXAMPLE


Dickson¹³ asserts that to try to define or conceptualise ‘reflecting’ as an interactive skill is very complex.


THREE OR MORE AUTHORS:


Surname of the first author only followed by et al.


EXAMPLE


¹⁴Randall et al.¹⁴ state that non-verbal behaviour causes people to…


DIRECT QUOTES


When citing a direct quote from a book chapter you also need the page number in the footnote/endnote (see next section on Referencing a chapter from an edited book):


EXAMPLE


Dickson¹⁵ believes reflection can be beset by problems such as ‘… conceptual confusion, terminological inconsistency, and definitional imprecision…’


REFERENCING A CHAPTER FROM AN EDITED BOOK


To reference the work of an author who has written a chapter in an edited book you need to include the following information in the endnote or footnote and references list:
Surname of the author/s who wrote the chapter, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of the chapter.’ In (in italics) Surname of the editor/s, Initial/s. (ed/s.) Title of book (in italics). Edition if applicable., Place of publication: Publisher, first and last page numbers of the chapter.
If you cite the same sources more than once in your essay, you do not need to give the full reference again. Instead, use the author’s surname and the number you used the first time you cited the source, with the page number if you have given a direct quotation.


EXAMPLES


¹³Dickson, D. (2006) ‘Reflecting.’ In Hargie, O. (ed.) The handbook of communication skills. 3rd
ed., London: Routledge, pp. 165-194.
¹⁴Randall, A. G., Druckman, D., Rozelle, R.M. and Baxter, J.C. (2006) ‘Non-verbal behaviour as communication: Approaches, issues and research.’ In Hargie, O. (ed.) The handbook of communication skills. 3rd ed., London: Routledge, pp. 73-120
¹⁵Dickson, ref.13, p. 167.

 

JOURNAL ARTICLES


IMPORTANT: An electronic journal is referenced in the same way as a print copy of the article This is because the information in the print copy, is exactly the same as in the electronic copy.
DO NOT reference an electronic journal as an internet source or online source.

 

CITING JOURNAL ARTICLES


When citing journal articles by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown in the general rules section of this guide.

 

REFERENCING JOURNAL ARTICLES


Key Points:

  • If you have used et al. in your citation you need to list all authors in your reference list, as shown in the first example below.
  • If there is no volume/issue number available, use the month or season in which the journal was published. You should place the month or season after the missing volume or issue number as shown in the examples below.
  • Ensure you use pp. and state the page numbers of the first and last pages of the article. If you only state the first page number this will give the impression that the journal article is only one page long.
  • If there is no author’s name provided on an article use the publication title in place of this, as shown in the fourth example below.

Taking the above into account, to reference a journal article you need to include the following information in the endnote or footnote and references list:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of journal article.’ Title of journal (in italics), Volume number (Issue number), first and last page numbers of whole journal article.


EXAMPLES


Mar, R., DeYoung, C., Higgins, D. and Peterson, J. (2006) ‘Self-liking and self-competence separate self-evaluation from self-deception: associations with personality, ability, and achievement.’ Journal of Personality, 74(4), pp. 1047-1078.


ISSUE NUMBER MISSING


Kitwood, T. (1988) ‘The technical, the personal, and the framing of dementia.’ Social Behaviour: An International Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 3, June, pp. 83-91.


VOLUME NUMBER MISSING


Income Data Services (2008) ‘Establishing an employer brand.’ IDS HR studies, (872), June, pp. 2-8.


NO AUTHOR NAME


Accountancy (2009) ‘Innocent wants VAT relief on smoothies.’ Accountancy, 143(1389), p. 14.


INTERNET SOURCES: WEBPAGES (INCLUDING BLOGS AND SOCIAL MEDIA SITES)

 

CITING WEBPAGES (INCLUDING BLOGS AND SOCIAL MEDIA SITES)


When citing websites by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown in the general rules section of this guide.

 

REFERENCING WEBPAGES (INCLUDING BLOGS AND SOCIAL MEDIA SITES)


Key Points:

  • If there is no author given use the organisation’s name instead. If you have stated the name of the organisation in place of the author, you do not need to state it again in the reference.
  • If there is no publication date state the words: no date in place of the year.
  • This format is used for all webpages including pages from blogs and social media sites.
  • The date (Day and Month) is required for blogs and social media posts, as shown in second and third example below.

Taking the above into account, when referencing a webpage, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:

 

WEBPAGE WITH AUTHOR


Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) Title of page (in italics). Date (Day and Month) the information was posted (if applicable/available). Name of organisation. [Online] [Date accessed] URL


EXAMPLES


Kerr, N. (2005) Happy slapping. Kidscape. [Online] [Accessed on 10th November 2011] http://www.kidscape.org.uk/press/pressdetail.asp?PressID=7
Lewis, D. (2013) 5 live investigates: business property tax avoidance costs taxpayers millions. 13th September. The BBC Radio 5 live blog. [Online] [Accessed on 16th September 2013] http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/5live/posts/5-live-Investigates-Business-tax-avoidance-costs-taxpayers-millions


WEBPAGE WITH NO AUTHOR


Name of organisation. (Year of publication) Title of page (in italics). [Online] [Date accessed] URL


EXAMPLES


BBC News England @BBCEngland. (2013) Library book returned 59 years late. 4th September. BBC News. [Online] [Accessed on 6th September 2013] https://twitter.com/BBCEngland
BBC. (2009) Teenage obesity link to future MS. [Online] [Accessed on 13th January 2010] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/8342585.stm

 

INTERNET SOURCES: PDF DOCUMENTS


IMPORTANT: This referencing format should NOT be used to reference journal articles that
have been found on electronic databases. Electronic journal articles should be referenced in the same way as paper copies; see section on ‘journal articles’ on p. 13.

 

CITING PDF DOCUMENTS


When citing PDF documents by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown in the general rules section of this guide.

 

REFERENCING PDF DOCUMENTS


Key points:

  • If the document does not state both a place of publication and the name of a publisher, you will need to say these details are unavailable by writing: Publisher details not available.
  • If only one of the publication details is missing you can use the following:

- if the place of publication is not provided use: Unknown place of publication
- if the publisher information is not provided use: Unknown publisher


Taking the above into account, when referencing a PDF document, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. or Name of organisation. (Year of publication) Title (in italics). Edition if applicable. Place of publication if available: Publisher if ascertainable. [Online] [Date accessed] URL


EXAMPLE


Department for Children, Schools and Families. (2008) Working together: listening to the voices of children and young people. Unknown place of publication: Department for Children, Schools
and Families. [Online] [Accessed on 9th February 2009] Available from: http://publications.teachernet.gov.uk/eOrderingDownload/DCSF-00410-2008.pdf

 

SECONDARY SOURCES


IMPORTANT: Secondary sources are authors who have been cited in the book/journal etc. that you have read but whose original work you have not read.

 

CITING SECONDARY SOURCES


When citing within the text you need to include the surname of the author whose idea you are using and the surname of the author of the book/journal from which you found the information.


EXAMPLE


Extract taken from the book by Whitehead and Mason¹⁶ :
A better way of appreciating the skills of reflective practice is to use Burns and Bulman’s (2000) framework. This involves a five-element scheme for reflection in which the first is self-awareness. Self-awareness is important for many walks of life and it is vital in nursing.
Note: Harvard referencing used in the extract
If you wanted to mention Burns and Bulman’s framework based on the information you have read in Whitehead and Mason’s book you would cite the authors as follows:
Burns and Bulman (cited in Whitehead and Mason¹⁶) have developed a 5 step framework for reflection. The first stage of this framework focuses on self-awareness.
In the above example you have shown that you are using Burns and Bulman’s framework on reflection in your assignment. However, because you did not find this information from the original paper by Burns and Bulman that was published in 2000, you have made it clear that the information was found in Whitehead and Mason’s book.


DIRECT QUOTES FROM A SECONDARY AUTHOR


When quoting information in your assignment you might want to use the same direct quote that the author of the book/journal etc. used. For example:
The following information was taken from page 118 of a journal article written by Mander in 2009. The information was presented as a direct quote from an original source, using Harvard referencing:
Weeping alone is painful. Grief is most powerfully eased when it can be shared (Carmichael, 1991:107).
If you want to use this quote in your assignment you will not use the page number that is presented next to Carmichael’s name and the date i.e. 107 in your endnote or footnote. Instead you will need to present the page number of the source that you found the information from i.e. 118.


EXAMPLE


Dealing with the loss of a loved one can be difficult especially when an individual is grieving alone. Sharing this grief can help alleviate the distress according to Carmichael (cited in Mander¹⁷) who argued that ‘weeping alone is painful. Grief is most powerfully eased when it
can be shared’.
¹⁷Mander, R. (2009) ‘Good grief: staff responses to childbearing loss.’ Nurse Education Today, 9(1), pp. 117-123, p.118.


PARAPHRASING A QUOTE FROM A SECONDARY SOURCE


You may wish to quote the work of a secondary author whose work has been paraphrased. For example:
The following information was taken from Mander (2009) on page 118. The information was not a direct quote, but was instead presented in Mander‘s own words:
In her Turkish-based survey to identify factors associated with crying, Kukullu and Keser (2006) demonstrated that crying is culturally-influenced, even culturally-determined.
Note Mander is using Harvard referencing here.


EXAMPLE


Mourning the loss of a loved one has been found to be ‘…culturally-influenced, even culturally-determined’ according to Kukullu and Keser (cited in Mander¹⁸).
In the footnote/endnote
¹⁸Mander, R., ref.17, p.118.

 

REFERENCING SECONDARY SOURCES


Key points:

  • When referencing a secondary source, you only need to mention the author/s of the source (be it a book, journal, online article etc.) of where the information was found and not the author whose idea you cited.

In your reference list, you only need to reference the original source you used.
If you used Burns and Bulman’s idea in your assignment, but did not find this information from the original source and instead found the information in Whitehead and Mason’s book, you need to reference Whitehead and Mason’s book.


EXAMPLE


Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) Title of book (in italics). Edition if applicable., Place of publication: Publisher.
Whitehead, E. and Mason, T. (2003) Study skills for nurses. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
If Whitehead and Mason’s publication was a journal then you would reference the information as a journal.


EXAMPLE


Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of journal article.’ Title of journal (in italics), Volume number (Issue number) Page numbers of whole journal article.
Whitehead, E. and Mason, T. (2003) ‘Study skills for nurses.’ Social Science and Medicine, 58(2) pp. 369-378.

 

NEWSPAPERS

 

CITING A NEWSPAPER ARTICLE


When citing newspaper articles by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown in the general rules section of this guide.

 

REFERENCING PRINT COPIES OF NEWSPAPER ARTICLES


Key points:

  • If you have used information from the supplement section you must state that you have done so, as shown in the first example below.
  • Some newspapers produce different editions throughout the day (e.g. First edition, Second edition, Evening edition, City edition etc.). If your copy has an edition you must state this, as shown in the first example below.
  • If there is no author then use the publication title in place of this.

Taking the above into account, when referencing a print copy of a newspaper you need to include the following information in your endnotes or footnotes and references list:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of article.’ Name of newspaper (in italics). Name of supplement if applicable. Date of publication. Edition if applicable, Page number of article.


EXAMPLES


Moore, S. (2007) ‘Careers are calling.’ Manchester Evening News. MEN job search supplement. 18th January. City edition. p. 3.
Travis, A. and Topham, G. (2012) ‘Airlines raise pressure to relax border controls.’ The Guardian. 24th April. p. 8.


REFERENCING ONLINE NEWSPAPER ARTICLES


When referencing a newspaper article that you have found online, you need to put the information in the following format:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of article.’ Name of newspaper (in italics). [Online] Date of publication. [Date accessed] URL


EXAMPLES


Arthur, C. (2012) ‘YouTube loses music clip copyright battle in court.’ The Guardian. [Online] 24th April [Accessed 24th April 2012] http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2012/apr/20/youtube-music-clip-copyright-court
Coates, S. and Bremner, C. (2013) ‘Merkel phone hacking row could stop EU free-trade talks with US.’ The Times [Online] 25th October. [Accessed 13th November 2013] http://www.lexisnexis.com/uk/legal/results/enhdocview.dococLinkInd=true&ersKey=23

 

DISSERTATIONS


CITING DISSERTATIONS


When citing dissertations by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown in the general rules section of this guide.

 

REFERENCING DISSERTATIONS


Key points:

  • Degree statement refers to whether the dissertation/thesis was for the award of B.A, B.Sc., M.A., M.Sc., Ph.D. etc

Taking the above into account, when referencing a dissertation, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, initial/s. (Year of submission) Title of thesis (in italics). Degree statement. Name of the awarding institution.
Gillen, J.K. (1998) An investigation into young children’s telephone discourse. Ph.D. Manchester Metropolitan University.

 

EBOOK READERS


IMPORTANT: When citing information from ebook readers, the information will be presented as shown in the general rules section of this guide. When referencing ebooks located and accessed via the Library website, they should be referenced in the same manner as a print copy of a book. . Downloadable books read on an ebook reader only should be referenced as below.
When referencing a downloadable book accessed on an ebook reader, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) Title of book (in italics). Edition if applicable., [name of ebook reader] Place of publication: Publisher.


EXAMPLES


Burrows, A., Parsons, A., Price, G. and Pilling, G. (2009) Chemistry³: introducing inorganic, organic
and physical chemistry. [Kindle Fire] Oxford: Oxford University Press.
For a direct quote from an ebook that contains page numbers the information should be presented in the same manner as a print copy of a book. If the ebook does not provide page numbers, you will need to use the location number or if no location is indicated, use the chapter number, as shown in the examples below.


EXAMPLES


¹⁹Burrows, A., Parsons, A., Price, G. and Pilling, G. (2009) Chemistry³: introducing inorganic, organic and physical chemistry. [Kindle Fire] Oxford: Oxford University Press. loc 23
²⁰Bowyer, P. (2013) Social media strategies [Kindle edition] LikePhate Publishing. chapter 3

 

APPS


An app refers to an application that is accessed on a mobile device, such as a tablet or smart phone. There are academic sources produced as apps so you may need to cite and reference one in your academic work.
When citing information from apps, the information will be presented as shown in the general rules section of this guide. When referencing an app, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Originator/s. (Year) (Use year accessed if release date is not available). Title of app. Version number (if known). [App] [Date accessed]


EXAMPLE


Skyscape. (2010) Skyscape. Medical Resources. Version 1.9.11. [App] [Accessed on 18th January 2011]

 

APP CONTENT

 

CITING APP CONTENT


When citing information from app content by paraphrasing, the information will be presented as shown previously.
When citing a direct quote from an app, you should use the following format:


EXAMPLE


‘Product, price, promotion…’ ²¹


REFERENCING APP CONTENT

 

When referencing content from an app, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Owner/creator. (Year) (Use year accessed if release date is not available). ‘Title of app content.’ Publisher or Producer (if ascertainable). Title of app. Version number. [App] [Date accessed]


EXAMPLE

²¹Morgan, J. (2012) ‘Business marketing lecture.’ Duke University. iTunes-U. Version 1.9.11. [App] [Accessed on 25th January 2012]


FILMS/DVDS/VIDEOS


CITING FILMS/DVDS/VIDEOS

 

When citing information taken from films/DVDs/videos you will need to use the title, with the exception of some extra features on DVDs/videos – see the sections on ‘Citing extra features on DVDs/videos: film commentaries’ and ‘Citing extra features on DVDs/videos: interviews with film director/s’ for information on these exceptions.
If the title of the film/DVD/video is long, you need to use the full title the first time you refer to it in your assignment. However, the title can be abbreviated from then on, as in the first example below.


EXAMPLES

To kill a burglar: the Tony Martin story (TM story) ²² addressed the issue of…
The Matrix Reloaded²³ highlights…


DIRECT QUOTES

To quote directly you need the time at which the words were spoken within the film/DVD/video in the reference in the footnote/endnote.


EXAMPLES

…states The Terminator, ‘I’ll be back’ ²⁴
²⁴ The Terminator (2009) Directed by J. Cameron [DVD] 20th Century Fox. 36mins 22.


REFERENCING FILMS


Key points:

  • You should only reference a film using the following format if you have watched it at a ‘screening’, for example at a cinema, lecture theatre or gallery. In this instance, you should state the type of media as [Film] and indicate the place of production and production company, if ascertainable.
  • The order in which the surname and initial/s of the director/s is presented, is opposite to the order in which the names of author/s of books/journal articles/internet sources etc. are presented. Here the director’s initial/s are presented before the surname

Taking the above into account, when referencing a film, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:

Title of the Film (in italics). (Year of production) Director’s initial/s. surname/s. [Film] Place of production: Production Company.


EXAMPLE


The Wind that Shakes the Barley. (2006) Directed by K. Loach. [Film] UK: UK Film Council.


REFERENCING DVDS/VIDEOS


Key points:

  • If you have viewed a film on a DVD or video you should reference it as shown below, and state the place of distribution and distribution company.
  • If the place of distribution of a DVD or videocassette is unknown then you may leave this field blank, as in the example below of the programme ‘To kill a burglar: the Tony Martin story’.
  • The order in which the surname and initial/s of the director/s is presented, is opposite to the order in which the names of author/s of books/journal articles/online sources etc. are presented. Here the director’s initial/s are presented before the surname.

Taking the above into account, when referencing a DVD or video, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Title of the DVD/video (in italics). (Year of distribution) Director’s initial/s. surname. Material type, either [DVD] or [Video] Place of distribution: Distribution Company.


EXAMPLES


The Matrix Reloaded. (2003) Directed by A. and L. Wachowski. [DVD] Los Angeles: Warner Brothers Inc.
To kill a burglar: the Tony Martin story. (2006) Directed by R. Bond. [DVD] BBC.
Domestic violence prevention video for schools. (2003) Directed by T. Debbonaire. [Videocassette] London: Westminster Domestic Violence Forum.

 

CITING EXTRA FEATURES ON DVDS/VIDEOS: FILM COMMENTARIES


When citing from a film commentary that you have viewed on a DVD/video, you will need to use the surname/s of the commentator/s as follows:
(NB: Also see instruction on citing three or more authors).
The surname/s of the commentator/s.


EXAMPLES


Altman and Tonkin²⁵ describe making the film The Player as ...
Altman and Tonkin stated, ‘when making the film The Player…’²⁶.

 

REFERENCING EXTRA FEATURES ON DVDS/VIDEOS: FILM COMMENTARIES


When referencing a film commentary that you have viewed on a DVD/video you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Commentator’s Surname/s, Initial/s. (Year) ‘Film commentary.’ Title of the DVD/video (in italics). Director’s initial/s. surname/s. Material type, either [DVD] or [Video] Place of distribution: Distribution Company.


EXAMPLES


²⁵Altman, R. and Tonkin, M. (2001) ‘Film commentary.’ The Player. Directed by R. Altman. [DVD] USA: Pathė.
If you have quoted directly you need to include the time at which the words were spoken in the film or DVD/video.
²⁶Altman, R. and Tonkin, M. (2001) ‘Film commentary.’ The Player. Directed by R. Altman. [DVD] USA: Pathė. (1 min 56)


CITING EXTRA FEATURES ON DVDS/VIDEOS: INTERVIEWS WITH FILM DIRECTOR/S


When citing information from an interview with a film director that you have viewed on a DVD/video, you will need to use the surname/s of the interviewee/s and the year of the interview as follows:
(NB: Also see instruction on citing three or more authors).
The surname/s of the interviewee/s and the year of the interview.


EXAMPLES


In an interview about The Matrix Reloaded, the director²⁷ expressed…
Wachowski said ‘When making the film The Matrix Reloaded…’ ²⁸


REFERENCING EXTRA FEATURES ON DVDS/VIDEOS: INTERVIEWS WITH FILM DIRECTOR/S


When referencing an interview with a film director that you have viewed on a DVD/video, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Interviewee’s Surname/s, Initial/s. (Year) ‘Title of interview.’ Interviewed by interviewer’s initial/s. surname. Title of the DVD/video (in italics). Director’s initial/s. surname/s. Material type, either [DVD] or [Video] Place of distribution: Distribution Company.


EXAMPLES


²⁷Wachowski, A. (2003) ‘Interview with A. Wachowski.’ Interviewed by L. Jones. The Matrix Reloaded. Directed by A. and L. Wachowski. [DVD] Los Angeles: Warner Brothers Inc.
If you have quoted directly you need to include the time at which the words were spoken in the film or DVD/video.
²⁸Wachowski, A. (2003) ‘Interview with A. Wachowski.’ Interviewed by L. Jones. The Matrix Reloaded. Directed by A. and L. Wachowski. 3 mins 22


CITING EXTRA FEATURES ON DVDS/VIDEOS: DOCUMENTARY


When citing from documentaries found on DVDs/videos you should present the information as shown in the section on: Citing films/DVDs/videos.

For the rest of this guide, please see HTML version part 2.

REFERENCING EXTRA FEATURES ON DVDS/VIDEOS: DOCUMENTARY


When referencing a documentary that was viewed as an extra feature on a DVD/video, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
‘Title of documentary.’ (Year) Produced by producer’s initial/s. surname/s. Title of DVD/video (in italics). Director’s initial/s. surname/s. Material type, either [DVD] or [Video] Place of distribution: Distribution Company.


EXAMPLE


‘Hitchcock: the early years.’ (2001) Produced by D. Lemon. The 39 Steps. Directed by A. Hitchcock. [DVD] UK: Carlton Visual.

 

CITING FILMS ACCESSED ONLINE


When citing films accessed online, the information should be presented as shown in the section on: Citing Films/DVDs/Videos.

 

TELEVISION AND RADIO BROADCASTS

 

CITING TELEVISION AND RADIO BROADCASTS


When citing a television or radio broadcast you should use the following format:
You must state the title when citing information taken from a broadcast. This can be either the title of the episode or the title of the programme, whichever is listed first in the reference.
If the title of the broadcast is long, you need to use the full title the first time you refer to it in your assignment. However, the title can be abbreviated from then on, as in the first example below.


EXAMPLES


Hillsborough – how they buried the truth²⁹ addressed the issue of…
Britain on Film³⁰ examines…


DIRECT QUOTES


To quote directly you need to add the time at which the words were spoken in the television or radio broadcast to the reference in the footnote/endnote as shown in the example for citing Films/DVDs/Videos.

 

REFERENCING TELEVISION AND RADIO BROADCASTS


When referencing a television or radio broadcast, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
‘Title of episode.’ (if applicable) Title of series/programme. (Year) Medium, either [Television] or [Radio] Television or radio channel, time and date of broadcast.
For a film that has been broadcast on television, the Director of the film must also be included in the reference: (as in the third example below)
Title of film. (Year of production) Director. [Television] Television channel, time and date of broadcast.


EXAMPLES


‘Hillsborough – how they buried the truth.’ Panorama. (2013) [Television] BBC1, 21.00 20th May 2013.
‘Mark Kermode reviews The Great Gatsby.’ Kermode and Mayo’s Film Review. (2013) [Radio] UK: BBC R5live, 14:00 17th May 2013.
Slumdog Millionaire. (2008) Directed by D. Boyle. and L. Tandan. [Television] Channel 4, 21:25 4th December 2010.

 

REFERENCING TELEVISION AND RADIO BROADCASTS ACCESSED ONLINE


When referencing a television or radio broadcast accessed online, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
For television or radio broadcasts accessed online, state the medium as [Online] and also state the online provider and the date it was accessed:
‘Title of episode.’ (if applicable) Title of series/programme. (Year of production) [Online] Television or radio channel, time and date of broadcast. Available through (online provider). [Date accessed]


EXAMPLE


Britain on Film. (2013) [Online] BBC Four, 20.00 6th August 2013. Available through Box of Broadcasts database. [Accessed 1st September 2013]


ONLINE VIDEOS


CITING ONLINE VIDEOS


When citing videos that have been found online such as YouTube videos, you should use the title in your text:


EXAMPLE


This MMU Degree Skills³¹ video briefly illustrates how to avoid…..


REFERENCING ONLINE VIDEOS


When referencing an online video, for example a YouTube video, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Owner/creator. (date) Title. (in italics) [Online video] [Date accessed] URL


EXAMPLES


³¹MMU Degree Skills. (2010) How to Avoid Plagiarism. [Online video] [Accessed on 10th June 2010] http://www.youtube.com/user/MMUDegreeSkills
To quote directly you need to add the time at which the words were spoken in the online video to the reference in the footnote/endnote as shown in the example for citing Films/DVDs/Videos.
This MMU Degree Skills video explains that changing the odd word here and there ‘can be classed as plagiarism’³²
³²MMU Degree Skills. (2010) How to Avoid Plagiarism. [Online video] [Accessed on 10th June 2010] http://www.youtube.com/user/MMUDegreeSkills 1 min 56

 

ONLINE IMAGES OR PHOTOS


CITING ONLINE IMAGES OR PHOTOS


When citing images the information will be presented as shown previously. Instead of author’s surname/s you will use the creator’s surname/s or the organisation’s name.

 

REFERENCING ONLINE IMAGES OR PHOTOS


Key points:

  • Occasionally, a year of publication may not be provided. If this is the case, you must state there is: no date.
  • If no title is available, instead provide a brief description of the image/photo. If there are a number of images/photos on the page where you accessed the information and they all show the same image, you do not need to distinguish between them, however you must make sure you do provide a description.

Taking the above into account, when referencing an online image or photo, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. OR name of organisation (Year of publication) Title of image or description of image (in italics). Name of organisation (if not already stated). [Online image] [Date accessed] URL


EXAMPLES


Allison, C. (2007) Tornado picture. Oklahoma weather stock: photo and video stock by Charles Allison. [Online image] [Accessed on 16th February 2009] http://www.oklahomalightning.com/TornadoPics/TornadoPics.htm
Oxford Illustrated Science Encyclopaedia. (no date) Volcano. [Online image] [Accessed on 16th February 2009] http://www.oup.co.uk/oxed/children/oise/pictures/earth/volcano/


LECTURE NOTES


IMPORTANT: Citing and referencing information from lecture notes is not recommended by certain courses. Please check with your programme team to clarify whether this is acceptable practice before you use this source.

 

CITING LECTURE NOTES


When citing lecture notes by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown in the general rules section of this guide.

 

REFERENCING LECTURE NOTES


Key points:

  • If the lecture notes do not have a title then write ‘no title’ where the title should be.
  • If there is no place of publication and publishing information it is safe to assume these will be the university you attend.
  • If you do not have the lecture number or module name you can leave this information out of the reference.

Taking the above into account, when referencing lecture notes, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of production) Title of the lecture notes (in italics). Place of publication: Publisher. Number of pages in handout, distribution date, the lecture number, module name.


EXAMPLE


Patel, H., Shields, E. and Inala, P. (2011) Using Harvard referencing to reference online sources. Manchester: Manchester Metropolitan University. 2-page handout, distributed on 15th March 2011.
Robinson, J. (2004) No title. Wolverhampton: University of Wolverhampton. 3-page handout, distributed on 13th March 2005 in lecture 3 for
module ‘Teaching gymnastics’.

 

GUEST PRESENTATIONS


CITING A GUEST PRESENTATION


When citing guest presentations by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown in the general rules section of this guide. Please note that it is the presenter’s surname/s you will use.
To quote directly you will need to use the format shown in the example below:
Jones³³ prophetically stated that ‘…the two departments would merge by April this year’.

 

REFERENCING GUEST PRESENTATIONS


When referencing information from a guest seminar/lecture/presentation, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Presenter’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of presentation) Title of lecture. Name of institution where the presentation has taken place, city of presentation, date of presentation.


EXAMPLES


³³Jones, R. (2012) The future of IT and Library Services. Presentation at Wessex University, Wessex, 10th January.


CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS AND CONFERENCE PAPERS (PUBLISHED AND UNPUBLISHED)


CITING CONFERENCE PAPERS (PUBLISHED OR UNPUBLISHED)


When citing conference papers by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown in the general rules section of this guide. Please note that when using information from conference papers, you need to cite the author (for published material) or presenter (for unpublished material) of the paper and not the organisation who held the conference or the editor of the conference proceedings (for published conference proceedings).


REFERENCING CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS 


Important: The whole conference proceedings would usually only appear in a bibliography rather than as a cited source, as you would normally cite from a conference paper. When referencing conference proceedings, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Name of organisation. (Year of publication) Title of conference (including number of annual conference if given) (in italics). Volume number if applicable. Location of conference (venue, city), date of conference. Editor’s (or Chair’s) Surname/s, Initial/s. (ed/s.) (if given). Place of publication: Publisher.


EXAMPLE


Academy of International Business. (2001) Proceedings of the 28th annual conference of the Academy of International Business (UK chapter) International business in the 21st century: change and continuity - strategies, institutions, regulations and operations. Vol. 1. Manchester  Metropolitan University Business School, Manchester, 6th– 7th April 2001. McDonald, F. and Tuselman, H. (eds.) Manchester: Manchester Metropolitan University Business School.


REFERENCING PUBLISHED CONFERENCE PAPERS


When referencing a paper from conference proceedings, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below: Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of conference paper.’ In (in italics) Name of organisation. Title of conference (including number of annual conference if given) (in italics). Volume number if applicable. Location of conference (venue, city), date of conference. Editor’s (or Chair’s) Surname/s, Initial/s. (ed/s.) (if given) Place of publication: Publisher, first and last page numbers of paper


EXAMPLES


Kuznetsov, A. and Kuznetsova, O. (2001) ‘The progress of market culture in Russia and managerial response’. In Academy of International Business. Proceedings of the 28th annual conference of the Academy of International Business (UK chapter) International business in the 21st century: change and continuity - strategies, institutions, regulations and operations. Vol. 1. Manchester Metropolitan University Business School, Manchester, 6th– 7th April 2001. McDonald, F. and Tuselman, H. Manchester: Manchester Metropolitan University usiness School, pp. 471-488.

 


REFERENCING AN UNPUBLISHED CONFERENCE PAPER


To reference an unpublished conference paper you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, initial/s. (Year of conference) ‘Title of paper.’ Paper presented at: Title of conference (in italics). Location of conference (venue, city), date of conference. [NB: no page numbers are needed]


EXAMPLE


Meagher, K. (2007) ‘The importance of public affairs in the business training sector.’ Paper presented at: The Regional Public Affairs Conference: Giving the North a voice in Westminster: adding value through public affairs. Manchester Metropolitan University Business School, Manchester, 20th March.

GOVERNMENT COMMAND PAPERS


Command papers include: White Papers, which present a statement of the government’s policy and Green Papers, which are discussion papers or reports that are presented to the Royal commission or departmental committees.
It is also useful to know that sometimes the word ‘command’, on command papers and in some reference lists may be abbreviated to ‘cmnd’, ‘cmd’ or ‘cm’.

CITING COMMAND PAPERS


When using a command paper you can use the name of the government department/organisation for which the publication was produced or the chairperson’s name, if there is one. The chairperson’s name is normally used if the report is commonly known by their name but you still need to include the name of the government department/organisation, as shown in the examples below.


EXAMPLES

USING THE DEPARTMENT’S NAME


The name of the department must be written in full when you first refer to it in your assignment. However, the name of the department can then abbreviated from then on, if you do not want to repeat the department’s full name throughout the assignment, as shown in the following examples:
The Department of Education and Science³⁴ claims that…
The DES³⁴ claims that…
…as stated by the DES³⁴ in their paper.


USING THE CHAIR’S NAME


The Swann Report (Department of Education and Science (DES))³⁴ has found that…
…as highlighted by the Swann Report (DES)³⁴


DIRECT QUOTES


When citing a direct quote from a command paper you need the page number in your endnote or footnotes and referencing list.

REFERENCING COMMAND PAPERS


Key points:

  • Most government publications will have an official reference number. If the paper you have read does not have a number leave this field blank.
  • Usually, government White and Green papers are published by either Her Majesty’s Stationery Office (HMSO) or by The Stationery Office (TSO). The abbreviated versions of the publisher’s name can be used in the reference list.

Taking the above into account, when referencing a command paper, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Government department/organisation for which the publication was produced. (Year of publication) Title (in italics). The word or an abbreviation of the word ‘Command’. Official reference number if there is one, place of publication: Publisher (Name of chairperson if there is one and the word Report).


EXAMPLES


Department of Education and Science. (1985) Education for all: report of the committee of inquiry into the education of children from ethnic minority groups. Cmnd. 9453, London: HMSO. (Swann Report)


ACTS OF PARLIAMENT

 

CITING ACTS OF PARLIAMENT


When citing Acts of Parliament in the main text of an assignment you must write in full, the short title of the Act and the year.


EXAMPLES


According to the 1996 Housing Act, there are….
The Charities Act 1960 clearly stated that….


DIRECT QUOTES


When citing a direct quote from an Act of Parliament you need to include the full short title of the Act and the year, followed by the page number, in your endnote or footnotes and referencing list.

 

REFERENCING AN ACT OF PARLIAMENT


When referencing an Act of Parliament, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
IMPORTANT: Unlike the other referencing formats the year of publication does not need to be placed in brackets as this forms part of the title of the Act.
Short title of the Act and Year (chapter number of the act, abbreviated to ‘c.’) Place of publication: Publisher.


EXAMPLE


Housing Act 1996 (c.52) London: HMSO.


ACTS INTRODUCED PRIOR TO 1963


If you are using an Act that was introduced prior to 1963, you will need to include some additional information alongside the chapter number.
Title of the Act and Year (Year of reign of the monarch at the time the Act was introduced, the monarch’s name which can be abbreviated, chapter number of the Act) Place of publication: Publisher.


EXAMPLE


Statistics of Trade Act 1947 (10&11 Geo. 6, c.39) London: HMSO.
Charities Act 1960 (8&9 Eliz. 2, c.58) London: HMSO.


MARKET RESEARCH REPORTS

 

CITING MARKET RESEARCH REPORTS


When citing market research reports by paraphrasing the information will be presented as shown in the general rules section of this guide. Please note that to cite a market report you will generally have to use the organisation’s name as an author name is usually not present.

 

REFERENCING PRINT COPY MARKET RESEARCH REPORTS


When referencing market research reports, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Name of research company or organisation. (Year of publication) Title of report (in italics). Date of report (month and year- if available). Edition if available. Place of publication: Publisher


EXAMPLE


Mintel. (2012) Coffee shops: UK. February 2012. London: Mintel Group.

 

REFERENCING ONLINE MARKET RESEARCH REPORTS


Key points:

  • If the URL for the webpage where the report was found requires you to login with a username and password, you need to use the homepage of the market report database in your reference, as in the example below. This will be the first page you view after you have logged in to the database.

Taking the above into account, when referencing a market research report that you have accessed from an online database (such as Mintel), you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Name of research company or organisation. (Year of publication) Title of report (in italics). Date of report (month and year – if available). [Online] [Date accessed] URL


EXAMPLE


Mintel. (2012) Coffee shops: UK. February 2012. [Online] [Accessed on 14th April 2012] http://academic.mintel.com


ANNUAL REPORTS

 

CITING ANNUAL REPORTS


When citing annual reports by paraphrasing the information will be presented as shown in the general rules section of this guide. Please note that to cite an annual report you will generally have to use the organisation’s name as an author name is usually not present.

 
REFERENCING PRINT COPY ANNUAL REPORTS


When referencing annual reports, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Name of company. (Year of publication) Title of annual report (in italics). Place of publication: Publisher.


EXAMPLE


eBay (2011). Annual Report 2011. San Jose: eBay Inc.

 

REFERENCING ONLINE ANNUAL REPORTS


When referencing an annual report that you have found online, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Name of company. (Year of publication) Title of annual report (in italics). [Online] [Date accessed] URL


EXAMPLE


British Geological Survey. (2010) Annual report 2010- 2011. [Online] [Accessed on 24th April 2012] http://www.bgs.ac.uk/downloads/

 

REPORTS: OTHERS


CITING GENERAL REPORTS


When citing general reports by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown in the general rules section of this guide.

 

REFERENCING PRINT COPY GENERAL REPORTS


Key points:

  • If there is no report code or number on the report, leave this field blank as in the first example below.

When referencing a report that is not a market research or annual report, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. or Name of organisation. (Year of publication) Title of report (in italics). Place of publication: Publisher. (Report code and number).


EXAMPLES


Lowden, K., Hall, S., Elliot, D. and Lewin, J. (2011) Employers’ perceptions of the employability skills of new graduates. London: Edge Foundation
ECOTEC. (2003) Guidance on mapping social enterprise: final report to the DTI Social Enterprise Unit. London: ECOTEC Research and Consulting Ltd. (C2453)


REFERENCING ONLINE GENERAL REPORTS


If you want to reference a report that is not a market research or annual report that you have found on the internet, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. or Name of organisation. (Year of publication) Title of report (in italics). [Online] [Date accessed] URL


EXAMPLE


RIBA (2011) Good design – it all adds up. [Online][Accessed on 24th April 2012] http://www.architecture.com/Files/RIBAHoldings/PolicyAndInternationalRelations

/Policy/Gooddesignitalladdsup.pdf

 

FOREIGN LANGUAGE SOURCES


CITING FOREIGN LANGUAGE SOURCES


When citing foreign language articles or books by paraphrasing or using direct quotes, the information will be presented as shown in the general rules section of this guide.

 

REFERENCING FOREIGN LANGUAGE SOURCES


Key points:

  • The translated English title (of the book or journal article) should be added in brackets following the original language title.

When referencing foreign language sources, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, initial/s. (Year of publication) Title of item (in italics). (English translation of title.) Place of publication: Publisher.


EXAMPLE


Sand, G. (1932) Histoire de ma vie. (History of my life.) Paris: Calmann-Levy.
Author’s surname/s, initial/s. (Year of publication) ‘Title of journal article.’ (English translation of journal article.) Title of journal (in italics), Volume number(Issue number) first and last page numbers of whole journal article.


EXAMPLE


Kamp, K. (2010) ‘Entre el trabajo y el juego: perspectivas sobre la infancia en el suroeste norteamericano.’ (Work and play: perspectives on children in the American Southwest.) Complutum, 21(2) pp. 103-120.

 

RELIGIOUS TEXTS


CITING RELIGIOUS TEXTS


To cite a religious text you would do so as follows, whether or not it is a direct quote or paraphrased:


EXAMPLE


…is a Bible quote often stated.³⁵
…is a tenet of the faith in the Koran.³⁶
A powerful affirmation is found in the Torah.³⁷


REFERENCING RELIGIOUS TEXTS


When referencing religious texts, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Full title of text, including sub-title (in italics). (Year of publication) Place of publication: Publisher.


EXAMPLES


The Bible: Authorized King James Version. (2008) Oxford: Oxford Paperbacks.
The Torah: The Five Books of Moses: Pocket edition. (2000) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.


LEAFLETS/POSTERS


IMPORTANT: Please check with your programme team to clarify the suitability of using these sources in your work, as they may not be an acceptable form of reference for some programmes.

 

CITING LEAFLETS/POSTERS


When citing leaflets or posters the information will be presented as shown in the general rules section of this guide. If there is no creator’s name on the item use the organisation’s name that produced it.

 

REFERENCING LEAFLETS/POSTERS


If there is no publisher information provided, state the location the source was viewed (to replace the place of publication) and the date it was viewed (to replace the publisher), as shown in the second example below.
Taking the above into account, when referencing leaflets or posters, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. or Name of organisation. (Year of publication) Title or description (in italics). [Type of source e.g. leaflet or poster] Place of publication if available or location the medium was viewed: Publisher if available or date the information was viewed.


EXAMPLES


Counselling Service. (no date) Need to talk? [Leaflet] Manchester: Manchester Metropolitan University.
The National Student Survey. (no date) Be heard. [Poster] Reception area, Gaskell campus: Date viewed 29 January 2009.
If an author or organisation’s name is not present you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Description of the source (in italics). (Year of publication) [Type of source e.g. Leaflet, poster] Place of publication if available or location the medium was viewed: Publisher if available or date the information was viewed.


EXAMPLE


The Foyer-UNIAID accommodation bursaries. (2009) [Poster] Student services notice board, Didsbury campus: Date viewed 9 February 2009.

 

WORKS OF ART


CITING WORKS OF ART


To cite a work of art in your assignment you may include the title of the work and date of creation as well as the artist’s name if these are important to the point you are making. Include the abbreviation c. if this is how the date is given in an exhibition catalogue or other source. This stands for “circa” and is used when the exact date of creation is not known by art historians.


EXAMPLE

Tanguy is thought to have been inspired as an artist by Chirico’s Portrait of Apollinaire as a Premonition c. 1914. ³⁸


REFERENCING WORKS OF ART


When referencing works of art, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below: Artist’s surname/s, initial/s. (Year of production) Title (in italics). Medium, size, location of exhibition.


EXAMPLE

Chirico, Giorgio de (c.1914) Portrait of Apollinaire as a Premonition. Oil on canvas, 81.5 x 65 cm, National Museum of Modern Art, Pompidou Centre, Paris.

 

ORIGINAL WORK OF ART SHOWING IN A TEMPORARY EXHIBITION


REFERENCING A WORK OF ART SHOWING IN A TEMPORARY EXHIBITION


When referencing original works of art that are showing in a temporary exhibition, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below:
Artist’s surname, Initial. (Year of production) Title (in italics). Medium, Size (if given), at: Location of exhibition. Dates of exhibition.


EXAMPLE

Parker, C. (2007) Bullet Drawing. Lead from a bullet drawn into wire, At: Whitechapel Laboratory, Whitechapel Art Gallery. 13 February - 30 March 2008.

 

REPRODUCTION IN A BOOK

 

REFERENCING A REPRODUCTION IN A BOOK


When referencing a reproduction in a book, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below: Artist’s surname/s, initial/s. (Year of production) ‘Title of work.’ Medium, Size (if given). In: Author /Editor. (Year of publication) Title of book (in italics). Edition if applicable., Page numbers. Place of publication: Publisher.


EXAMPLE

Klee, P. (1929) Old Man Calculating. Etching on copper, 29.9x23.7cm. In: Partsch, S. (2000) Klee. p.47 Koln: Taschen.

 

PLAY REFERENCING A PLAY

When referencing a play, you should include the surname of the playwright, and the year the play was written, as in a reference to a book, and treat direct quotes in the same way as a book (see general rules section). However, for plays written centuries ago, where it is impossible to source the original text, (such as the works of Shakespeare) you should also include the publication year of the source you have read. Author, Initial/s. (Year of the edition) Title of play (in italics). Editor’s surname/s, initial/s. (ed/s.) Edition if applicable., Place of publication: Publisher.


EXAMPLE


Shakespeare, W. (1995) Twelfth Night. Warren, R. and Wells, T. (eds.) Oxford: Oxford University Press.


DIRECT QUOTES


If you quote directly from an old play, such as Shakespeare, you also need the act number, scene number and line numbers, as shown in the example below.


EXAMPLE


Much speculation has occurred when Malvolio imagines he might marry Olivia, ‘there is example for't; the Lady of the Strachy married the yeoman of the wardrobe’ ³⁹
³⁹ Shakespeare, W. (1995) Twelfth Night. Warren, R. and Wells, T. (eds.) Oxford: Oxford University Press. Act 2, scene 5, line nos 36-7.


SONGS

 

CITING SONGS


When citing from a song, by paraphrasing or using a direct quotes, the information should be presented as shown below:


EXAMPLE

In the song Imagine⁴⁰…

 

REFERENCING SONGS FROM A SINGLE (A OR B SIDES)


When referencing a song from a single, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below: Artist’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of release) ‘Title of song.’ Title of single (in italics). [format, medium] Location of record label: Record label.


EXAMPLE


Lennon, J. (1971) ‘Working class hero.’ Imagine. [single, vinyl record] UK: Apple.


REFERENCING SONGS FROM AN ALBUM


When referencing a song from an album, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below: Artist’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of release) ‘Title of song.’ Title of album (in italics). [format, medium] Location of record label: Record label.


EXAMPLE


Lennon, J. (1971) ‘Imagine.’ Imagine. [album, vinyl record] UK: Apple. REFERENCING AN ALBUM
When referencing an album, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below: Artist’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of release) Title of album (in italics). [format, medium] Location of record label: Record label.


EXAMPLE


Lennon, J. (1971) Imagine. [album, CD] UK: Apple.

 

PERSONAL COMMUNICATION

 

CITING PERSONAL COMMUNICATION


When citing personal communication by paraphrasing or using direct quotes the information will be presented as shown in the general rules section of this guide.

 

REFERENCING PERSONAL COMMUNICATION


When referencing personal communication, you should provide the following information in the format displayed below: Sender’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year communication was sent) Subject of communication (in italics). Type of communication and name of recipient. Date communication was sent (day month).


EXAMPLE


Inala, P. (2009) Make poverty history. Email to Tony Blair. 2nd July.


SOURCES WITH NO AUTHOR


IMPORTANT: There may be rare instances where no author’s name is present and the information was not produced by an organisation. You may come across this in both printed and internet sources. In these instances, you should follow the instructions below.

 

REFERENCING SOURCES WITH NO AUTHOR


When referencing a source with no author, you should replace the author/organisation’s name with ‘Anon’, ‘Anonymous’ or ‘Author unknown’. The examples below show the information that should be provided and how it should be displayed for a book, a journal article and a webpage.


BOOK EXAMPLE:


Anonymous (1996) Primary Colours. New York: Vintage


JOURNAL EXAMPLE (FICTIONAL):


Author unknown. (2008) ‘Writing anonymously to protect sources.’ Unknown publication, 24(3) pp. 34-54.


WEBPAGE EXAMPLE (FICTIONAL):


Author unknown (2008) The website with no author. [Online][Accessed 15th March 2012] http://www.anonymouswebsites.co.uk : Fictional Press