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MMU Harvard

Manchester Metropolitan University has a standard version of the Harvard referencing style called MMU Harvard.

The MMU Harvard style requires you to reference each type of information source (eg book, article, webpage etc) in a standard way.

The 'key sources' and 'further sources' sections below show how to cite and reference a wide range of information source types.

Please also see the Citations section for instruction on how to present citations.

Please note:

The MMU Harvard guide has been updated and amended for the 4th (2016-2017) edition.  The amendment has been made in the 'Further sources' section of the guide, in that 'Personal communication' has been removed.  

See our referencing FAQs for further instruction.

If you are using a referencing management software other than Endnote to help with formatting your references, please ensure you check your references against the examples provided in the MMU Harvard guide.

You can also download the full MMU Harvard Referencing Guide as a PDF:

MMU Harvard: key sources

Select a heading below:


Chapter in an edited book

Webpage (including blogs and social media sites)

Journal articles

Newspaper articles

Secondary sources


MMU Harvard: further sources

Acts of parliament

Annual reports

App content


Case Law

Company data/reports from company financial databases

Company reports

Computer/video games

Conference papers (published and unpublished) and conference proceedings

Discussion papers

eBook readers

EU documents/legislation

Exhibition catalogues


Foreign language sources

General reports

Government command papers

Guest presentation

Illustrations: e.g. images, pictures, diagrams, graphs, charts or tables

Journals: special issue


Lecture notes

Market reports/Company and Industry profiles

Online images

Online PDF documents

Online videos


Religious texts



Sources with no author


Statutory Instruments

Translated book

TV and radio broadcasts

Working papers

Works of art


If you need further help with citing and referencing the above sources please check the full PDF MMU Harvard referencing guide at the top of this page.


This MMU Harvard referencing guide is designed to be used specifically by undergraduate students studying at Manchester Metropolitan University.  However, all students are advised to check with their programme team as to which style of referencing is required as a few departments do not use the Harvard system.

Postgraduate students and those who are submitting material for publication should adhere strictly to guidelines or specifications provided by their supervisor or publishers of the relevant journal.


In constructing this guide, a number of handbooks from various institutions were consulted.  Permission to use information from these institutes has been granted.  The authors would like to thank and acknowledge the following institutes:

David Rudd – University of Bolton

Geoffrey Ward – University of Essex

Information Literacy Team – University of Leeds

Learning and Information Services (LIS) – University of Wolverhampton

Skills for Learning – Leeds Metropolitan University

Sue Taylor – University of Gloucestershire 

Virginia Bell – Queen Margaret University

Academic Services – Bournemouth University

The authors would also like to thank members of staff from the Institute of Education and the Faculty of Health, Psychology and Social Care for their advice and recommendations.

Special thanks to Janet Rooney for the design of the PDF referencing guide.