Manchester School of ArtPostgraduates & researchersOscolaMHRA
Quotes: direct quotesQuotes: general rulesSample reference listCitations: general rules
This is the "MMU Harvard" page of the "Referencing" guide.
Alternate Page for Screenreader Users
Skip to Page Navigation
Skip to Page Content

Referencing   Tags: harvard, mmu harvard, referencing  

Last Updated: Mar 5, 2015 URL: Print Guide RSS UpdatesEmail Alerts

MMU Harvard Print Page

MMU Harvard

MMU has a standard version of the Harvard referencing style called MMU Harvard.

The Harvard style requires you to reference each type of information source (eg book, article, webpage etc) in a standard way. This page shows how to cite and reference some key information source types.

If you are using a referencing management software other than Endnote to help with formatting your references, please ensure you check your references against the examples provided in the MMU Harvard guide.

You can also download the full MMU Harvard Referencing Guide as a PDF:


About referencing

Why should I reference?

What is plagiarism?

What is citing?

What are references?

What is a bibliography?

What is Harvard?

Referencing list format


Citations: general rules

Direct quotes: general rules


MMU Library referencing videos

Loading Loading...
blank padding

How to cite and reference some key sources

Select a heading below:


Chapters in an edited book

Online sources: webpage (including blogs and social media sites)

Journal articles


Secondary sources



Further sources

Acts of parliament

Annual reports

App content


Conference papers (published and unpublished) and conference proceedings

eBook readers


Foreign language sources

General reports

Government command papers

Guest presentation

Illustrations: eg images, pictures, diagrams or tables

Internet sources: PDF documents


Lecture notes

Market reports/Company and Industry profiles

Online images

Online videos

Personal Communication


Religious texts


Sources with no author

TV and radio broadcasts

Works of art

If you need further help with citing and referencing the above sources please check the full MMU Harvard Guide.



This Harvard referencing handbook is designed to be used specifically by undergraduate students studying at Manchester Metropolitan University.  However, all students are advised to check with their programme team as to which style of referencing is required as a few departments do not use the Harvard system.

Postgraduate students and those who are submitting material for publication should adhere strictly to guidelines or specifications provided by their supervisor or publishers of the relevant journal.



In constructing this guide, a number of handbooks from various institutions were consulted.  Permission to use information from these institutes has been granted.  The authors would like to thank and acknowledge the following institutes:

David Rudd – University of Bolton

Geoffrey Ward – University of Essex

Information Literacy Team – University of Leeds

Learning and Information Services (LIS) – University of Wolverhampton

Skills for Learning – Leeds Metropolitan University

Sue Taylor – University of Gloucestershire 

Virginia Bell – Queen Margaret University

Academic Services – Bournemouth University

The authors would also like to thank members of staff from the Institute of Education and the Faculty of Health, Psychology and Social Care for their advice and recommendations.

Special thanks to Janet Rooney for the design of the PDF referencing guide.


Loading  Loading...