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Referencing

Avoiding plagiarism

This tutorial will focus on plagiarism and how to avoid it. 

Plagiarism is passing off someone else's work, whether intentionally or unintentionally, as your own for your own benefit.  This quote and idea was taken from Carroll so her work needs to be acknowledged (pause and click) and referenced correctly If this information is not provided it would be plagiarised.  For more info on how to cite and reference different sources, please see the relevant tutorials.

As you work through this podcast you will be given the option of pausing so you can work through the exercises.

The page you can see has been taken from Edwards and Talbot’s (1999) book.  The information that we will be using throughout this podcast is presented in the box.  Student A has used this information but do you think Student A has plagiarised the work? Press pause for more time. 

Student A has plagiarised because although Edwards and Talbot's (1999) ideas have been used, they have not been acknowledged.  This gives the impression that the ideas are entirely the work of the student.

Furthermore, Student A directly copied a phrase from the original without using quotation marks.  This is also classed as plagiarism.

Student B has also used Edwards and Talbot’s (1999) work.  Has Student B plagiarised? Press pause for more time

 Although the author has been acknowledged, the information is bad academic practice.  This is because they wording of Student B’s text is very similar to the original text by Edwards and Talbot (1999).

The presentation of the Edwards and Talbot's (1999) idea by student B claims to show that the learner is presenting the information as they understand it. However, this is not the case, because only a few words have been altered from the original text.  This does not demonstrate understanding but shows that the learner knows how to change the odd word here and there. This is bad academic practice and can be classed as plagiarism.

Student C has also used Edwards and Talbot’s (1999) work.  Has Student C plagiarised? Press pause for more time. 

Student C has not plagiarised because the authors have been acknowledged

And Student C has summarised the work of the author in their own words by using key words or ideas to do this.

Finally, Student C has also included the full reference in the reference list at the end of their assignment.  You must remember to include this information

To summarise there are three things to remember to avoid plagiarism:

  1. Acknowledge your sources in the text and in your reference list
  2. Demonstrate your understanding when not using direct quotes and
  3. Focus on keywords and ideas when paraphrasing/summarising ideas

This is the end of the tutorial.  To find out how to reference different sources please look at the relevant tutorial or the online guide.

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How to cite and reference a chapter in an edited book

This video will show you how to cite and reference a chapter from an edited book.

First, I am going to demonstrate how to cite an author whose ideas I have summarised in my own words.

I have summarised the point made about action learning in this chapter ‘The Power of Action Learning’ by Bob Garett, which is part of a book: Action learning in practice edited by Mike Pedlar. When you summarise another author’s ideas, you must ensure you state where you got the information from. The details you need to include are the author of the chapter and year of publication. I might be tempted to cite the name on the cover of the book – Mike Pedlar – but if I did, I would be saying that I was paraphrasing Pedlar’s ideas. I am summarising Bob Garett’s ideas from his chapter, so I must use his name. The other piece of information you need is the date of publication, which you can find on the copyright page of the book; this follows the author’s surname in your citation.

Instead of paraphrasing, you can cite other authors by directly quoting from a chapter. When using direct quotes you need to put the exact words in quotation marks, which are highlighted here in red. You then cite as before using the author’s surname and year of publication but then put a colon after the year, followed by the page number that the quotation comes from so that other people can easily locate it.

When referencing a book chapter at the end of your assignment, you create your reference using information that can be found on the first page of the chapter, the copyright page and cover of the book.

You build your reference as follows: the surname of the author of the chapter followed by the initial of their first name and a full stop. The year of publication of the source in round brackets.  The title of the chapter comes next in single quotation marks.

You then need to put the information about the book the chapter comes from. Start by writing ‘In’ in italics. You then need the editor of the books’ surname followed by initial. This time you don’t need the year as this will be the same as the chapter. You do need to follow the name with the letters E-D in round brackets to show that this is the editor of the book, not the author. The title of the book follows in italics. If there is edition information this goes next, abbreviated to E-D. If there is no edition information then leave this out. Next, you put the place of publication followed by a colon. The place of publication can be confusing. If there is a British town or city listed then always use this rather than an overseas location. Put the name of the publisher followed by a comma. Finally, state the first and last page numbers of the chapter, followed by a full stop. Your ref is now complete.

To find out how to reference other sources please refer to the MMU Harvard online referencing guide.

For more help and information, please ask a member of staff or visit the Library website.

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How to cite and reference a webpage where an author's name IS present

This video will show you how to cite & reference an internet source where an author’s name is present.

I have summarised the points made on a webpage about the difference between human and computer chess players. When you summarise another author’s ideas, you must ensure you state where you got the information from. The details that you need to include are the author of the information and the year it was posted. This information can be found on the webpage itself. If we go back to the top of the page, it states that the author of this article is Finlo Rohrer so I will put this in my citation. The year is also present, so put this next and close the brackets. When using internet sources you might find that the publication date is not given. If you cannot find the publication date, then do not make up a year; instead, state that there is ‘no date’.

Instead of paraphrasing words you can also use direct quotes. When using direct quotes from a webpage you need to put the exact words in quotation marks which are highlighted here in red. You then cite as before using the author’s surname and the year of publication (or ‘no date’ if applicable). This is then followed by a colon and the word ‘online’ to show that this is an internet source.

When referencing an internet source at the end of your assignment, all the information you need to include can be found on the web page itself. You build your reference as follows: the surname of the author followed by the initial of their first name and a full stop. The year of publication of the source is included in round brackets.  The title of the page comes next and this needs to be in italics so it stands out from the rest of the reference followed by a full stop. Next put the name of the organisation. You must then state that the source is available ‘online’ which is put in square brackets. This is followed by the date that the webpage was accessed, also in square brackets. Finally you need to insert the URL, which can be found at the top of the screen.

Your reference is now complete.

To find out how to reference other sources please refer to the MMU Harvard online Referencing guide.

For more help and information, please ask a member of staff or visit the library website.

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How to cite and reference a webpage where NO author's name is present

This video will show you how to cite & reference an internet source where no author’s name is present. In most cases you would use the name of the organisation as the author.

When you cite within the main body of your assignment you can do so by summarising the information on the website. If you wanted to summarise the points made here about new child support regulations, you must ensure you state where you got the information from. All the information you need to include in your citation can be found on the webpage itself. Usually you would start the citation by putting the name of the author of the post. However, here, no author is given, so instead you put the name of the organisation, which in this case is Barnardos. The other piece of information you need to include is the year of the publication, which follows the organisation’s name in round brackets. When using internet sources you might find that the publication date is not given. If you cannot find the publication date, then do not make up a year; instead, state that there is ‘no date’.

Instead of paraphrasing words you can also use direct quotes. When using direct quotes from a webpage you need to put the exact words in quotation marks which are highlighted here in red. You then cite as before using the organisation’s name and the year of publication (or ‘no date’ if applicable). This is followed by a colon and the word ‘online’ to show that it is an internet source.  

When referencing an internet source at the end of the assignment, all the information you need to include can be found on the web page itself. You build your reference as follows: the name of the organisation then a full stop. The year of publication of the source or ‘no date’ in round brackets.  The title of the page comes next and this needs to be in italics so it stands out from the rest of the reference followed by a full stop. You must then state that the source is available ‘online’ which is put in square brackets. This is followed by the date that the webpage was accessed, also in square brackets.  Finally you need to insert the URL, which can be found at the top of the screen. Your reference is now complete.

To find out how to reference other sources please refer to the MMU Harvard online Referencing guide

For more help and information, please ask a member of staff or visit the library website.

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Secondary referencing: how to cite & reference an author cited in another text

This video will show you how to cite & reference a secondary source; this is an author whose ideas you have read about in another text. When you cite within the main body of your assignment you can do so by summarising the arguments you have read. If you wanted to paraphrase the points made here about making a valuable contribution to a research field you must ensure you state where you got the information from.

In this case, the book is by one author but the details you are citing are actually written by Boote and Beile. Because Boote and Beile are the authors of the ideas you are citing, you put their names first in your citation. These are followed by the year they published the idea. You can find the year in the text itself. If you left the citation like this you would then be giving the impression that you had read Boote and Beile’s work. You need to show that you have only read a secondary interpretation because if this interpretation is flawed your tutor will attribute this mistake to you. First put ‘cited in’. Then you need to include the name of the author of the book, which in this case is Gray. Finally, you put the date of the book, which can be found on the copyright page.

Instead of paraphrasing, you can use direct quotes that have come from a different author to the one whose book you are reading. When using direct quotes you need to put the exact words in quotation marks, which are highlighted here in red. You then cite as before using the original author’s surname – in this case Dochartaigh - and the year the quote was written. Put ‘cited by’ and then name of the author of the book and the book’s date of publication. When citing direct quotes you need to include a page number so that they can be easily located again. Dochartaigh’s original quote was on page 27, but we read it in Gray’s work so you need to write the page number where you read it, in this case page 104.

Although you mentioned Boote and Beile and Dochartaigh within your assignment, in your reference list, you only need to reference the book you actually read – Gray’s Doing research in the real world. If you would like further information on referencing a book please refer to the MMU Harvard online Referencing guide.

Here you can also find out how to reference other sources.

For more help and information, please ask a member of staff or visit the library website.

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